Tag Archives: Middle East and Africa Research

Representations of Jewish and Arab Citizens in Western Social and Mass Media during Times of Diaspora: Considering World War II and the War on Terror

Representations of Jewish and Arab Citizens in Western Social and Mass Media during Times of Diaspora: Considering World War II and the War on Terror

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Commonalities can be found in how countries have dealt with Jewish refugees before and after World War II and how Arabs are being spoken about during the War on Terror. Anti-Semitic sentiment towards Jews around the time of the Nazis matches the Islamophobia sentiment following the rise of ISIS. Antagonistic attitudes towards those of Jewish ethnicity has persisted even today, with references to the holocaust being pervasive on social media. Equally, attitudes towards Muslims has been equally divisive on such platforms. During World War II there was emotive language to the diaspora of Jews into the Holy Land and during the War on Terror, attitudes to the diaspora of Arabs into Europe has been equally distasteful. This paper investigates media representations of Jews and Arabs in the 1930s and 2010s, concluding that many of the issues that were prominent in the lead up to World War II are also prominent during the War on Terror.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2017). Representations of Jewish and Arab Citizens in Western Social and Mass Media during Times of Diaspora: Considering World War II and the War on Terror. In: Focus on Terrorism. Nova Science Publishers: New York, NY. Available at: http://research.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/6/2017/05/jewish-arab-citizens-western-social-mass-media-times-of-diaspora.pdf

Conceptualising Network Politics following the Arab Spring: An African Perspective

Conceptualising Network Politics following the Arab Spring: An African Perspective

Ashu M.G. Solo and Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Network politics is examined in the context of the Arab Spring. Network politics refers to politics and networks. These networks include the Internet, private networks, cellular networks, telephone networks, radio networks, television networks, etc. Network politics includes the applications of networks to enable one or more individuals or organizations to engage in political communication. Furthermore, network politics includes government regulation of networks. Finally, network politics includes the accompanying issues that arise when networks are used for political communication or when there is government regulation of networks. The domain of network politics includes, but is not limited to, e-politics (social networking for driving revolutions and organizing protests, online petitions, political blogs and vlogs, whistleblower Web sites, online campaigning, e-participation, virtual town halls, evoting, Internet freedom, access to information, net neutrality, etc.) and applications of other networks in politics (robocalling, text messaging, TV broadcasting, etc.). The definition of this field should significantly increase the pace of research and development in this important field.

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Citation

Ashu M.G. Solo & Jonathan Bishop (2014). Conceptualising Network Politics following the Arab Spring: An African Perspective. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 1(1), 23-28.

Ashu M.G. Solo & Jonathan Bishop (2014). Conceptualising Network Politics following the Arab Spring: An African Perspective. In: Jonathan Bishop (Ed.). The Digital Media Reader: Media, Culture, Society and Politics in the Digital Age. Swansea, GB: The Crocels Press Limited.

Sex and age biases in Tweets relating to the 2015 migration crisis

Sex and age biases in Tweets relating to the 2015 migration crisis

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The 2015 migration crisis arose out of the interference of Western government in the affairs of countries affected by the Arab Spring Uprisings. Attitudes towards immigration can be very strong, with even UK Prime Minister David Cameron describing the increased asylum applications as a result of his failed foreign policies a “swarm.” This talk looks at how attitudes towards immigration have been expressed on Twitter and the extent to which sex and age biases shape or otherwise the moral compass of those in the Twittersphere.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2015). Sex and age biases in Tweets relating to the 2015 migration crisis. Diaspora Beyond Nationalism Conference. 16 September 2015. Cardiff University, Cardiff, GB.

The role of affective computing for improving situation awareness in unmanned aerial vehicle operations: A US perspective

The role of affective computing for improving situation awareness in unmanned aerial vehicle operations: A US perspective

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly known as drones, are a robotic form of military aircraft that are operated by humans remotely. Due to lack of situation awareness, such technology has led to the deaths of civilians through the inaccurate targeting of missile or gun attacks. This chapter presents the case for how a patented invention can be used to reduce civilian casualties through attaching an affect recognition sensor to a UAV that uses a database of strategies, tactics and commands to better instruct fighter pilots on how to respond while in combat so as to avoid misinterpreting civilians as combatants. The chapter discusses how this system, called VoisJet, can reduce many of the difficulties that come about for UAV pilots, including reducing cognitive load and opportunity for missing data. The chapter concludes that using UAVs fitted with VoisJet could allow for the reduction of the size of standing armies so that defence budgets are not overstretched outside of peacetime.

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Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2015). The role of affective computing for improving situation awareness in unmanned aerial vehicle operations: A US perspective. In: Jordi Vallverdú (Ed.). Synthesizing Human Emotion in Intelligent Systems and Robotics. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. (Pages 404-414). Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-role-of-affective-computing-for-improving-situation-awareness-in-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-operations.pdf

Social Media and the Freedom of Expression in Nigeria: Posting the mind of a Nation

Social Media and the Freedom of Expression in Nigeria: Posting the mind of a Nation

Joseph Wilson and Nuhu Gapsiso

Abstract

Nigerians cherish the freedom they are guaranteed under the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights Instruments and the constitution especially section 39(1) of the 1999 constitution of Nigeria which guarantees freedom of expression as a fundamental right. But the collective commitment to freedom of expression in Nigeria is often tested when these expressions are conveyed via popular conventional channels. Nigerians rights to free expression has over the years been characterised by numerous attempts by state and non-state actors to suppress or bully them into silence. However, the emergence of social media platform and the overwhelming embrace by Nigerians have changed the status quo, as more Nigerians take to social media to express their views on all issues and the perceived use by political and other elites to reach out to supporters. For example the incumbent President of Nigeria has from time to time used his Facebook platform to address Nigerians on some important government decisions and policies that elicits response from Nigerians via same platform. Media organizations have also used the same platform to generate comments on some issues of national interest (e.g. Removal of fuel subsidy, corruption in Nigeria etc.). This paper explores people´s posts on the Facebook site of selected media organizations on the popular Nigeria’s aviation ministry armoured car scandal. The analysis would look at the tone of the posts (positive or negative, sectional based on regional and ethnic affiliation) and the overriding position.

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Citation

Joseph Wilson & Nuhu Gapsiso (2014). Social Media and the Freedom of Expression in Nigeria: Posting the mind of a Nation. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 1(1), 5-22.

Foreword for the special issue on Africa and social media

Foreword for the special issue on Africa and social media

Piet Kommers

Abstract

If social media are crucial in western communities they are even more vital for developing countries like in Africa. This preface preludes on the coming decades when economies become subservient to societal needs instead of “market economies” again. This editorial is worth reading as it helps you to see the next generation of social media. It is no longer sufficient to see social networking as mirroring the actual social presence; social media will take over sensitive parts of socialisation as we now see happening in the classroom. Trolling as we see it now just shows that more media-based communication will go beyond news, critics and visionary genres. It will be the natural rhetoric for citizens to express societal needs.

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Citation

Piet Kommers (2014). Foreword for the special issue on Africa and social media. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 1(1), 1-2.

Citizen Journalism Practice in Nigeria: Trends, Concerns, and Believability

Citizen Journalism Practice in Nigeria: Trends, Concerns, and Believability

Joseph Wilson and Fancis Iloani Arinze

Abstract

Journalism practice globally in the last two decades has experienced some obvious changes. For instance, it is no longer the case that the business of gathering, processing and distribution of information, which for several decades was supposedly a preserve of practitioners that have acquired some form of training in the field of journalism and are guided by journalism ethos or ethics. With societal development and technological advancement, individuals have delved into exercising the functions of journalists, which has led to the emergence of concepts such as “Citizen Journalism” among others. The emergence of citizen journalism obviously has its plus in the rapid development of the information society, with the active participation of members of the society processing information. However, there are several concerns. Since journalism now seems to be an all-comers affair, obviously there are bound to be deficiencies in strictly upholding the tenets of Journalism profession such as truthfulness, accuracy, objectivity, impartiality, fairness, authentication of sources and public accountability. This chapter explores the nature of citizen journalism as practiced in Nigeria, the channels that propel citizen journalism practice in Nigeria, the concerns in respect to ethos or ethics and whether Nigerians believe the products of this new form of journalism (things posted online) and why.

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Joseph Wilson & Fancis Iloani Arinze (2014). Citizen Journalism Practice in Nigeria: Trends, Concerns, and Believability. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 1(1), 63-92.

Editorial for the special issue on Africa and social media

Editorial for the special issue on Africa and social media

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This editorial is for the first issue of the International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation, which is envisaged for each issue will be a special issue on a relevant and current topic. This special issue, on Africa and Social Media has come together from a number of specialist author’s responses to calls for participation, reflecting issues in Africa as they have been affected by the mass availability of social networking technologies.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Editorial for the special issue on Africa and social media. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 1(2), 3-4.

Between Flaming and Laudation: Political Websites, Social Media, and Democratic Participation in Niger

Between Flaming and Laudation: Political Websites, Social Media, and Democratic Participation in Niger

Gado Alzouma

Abstract

In Africa, like elsewhere in the world, political actors are now increasingly using websites, blogs, online discussion forums, interactive newspapers, and online television and radio to foster civic participation in communities. Social media recently played a central role in what came to be known as the “Arab Spring” and is also being used by modern African political actors in order to contribute to democratic change. This paper analyses the contributions of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to democratic participation and online political discussions in Niger and particularly focuses on the use of ICTs for political mobilization and related strategies that actors (parties, rebel organizations, Diasporas, and citizens) are deploying on various digital platforms. The paper argues that traditional notions of power relations and political communication, as well as the nature of the digital tools used, are determinant in conferring (or not conferring) a democratic character to online discussions and political participation.

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Between Flaming and Laudation: Political Websites, Social Media, and Democratic Participation in Niger by Jonathan Bishop

Citation

Gado Alzouma (2014). Between Flaming and Laudation: Political Websites, Social Media, and Democratic Participation in Niger. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 1(1), 29-61.