Tag Archives: Actor–Network Theory Research

Detecting Sexual Harassment in Workplace Electronic Communications Networks: The Role of “PROTEGER” for Augmentive Behaviour Monitoring

Detecting Sexual Harassment in Workplace Electronic Communications Networks: The Role of “PROTEGER” for Augmentive Behaviour Monitoring

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Sexual harassment has been a problem within organisations for some time. Its manifestation in electronic communication networks can be seen to amount to cyber-bullying or cyber-stalking. Through looking at records relating to an instance of sexual harassment at a higher education institution, including from that member of staff’s workplace, and those created by referrals to the police, the court service, and their workplace, this chapter shows how a piece of assistive technology called the ‘Protective Technology for Ensuring Guardianship of Environmental Resources’ (PROTEGER) can automatically detect sexual harassment narratives. In this context, ‘environmental resources’ should refer to both humans and documents. Human resource managers would be better equipped to deal with disputes between staff if PROTEGER was running on their local area network as it might not be a matter of one member of staff’s word against another’s.

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2017). Detecting Sexual Harassment in Workplace Electronic Communications Networks: The Role of “PROTEGER” for Augmentive Behaviour Monitoring. In B. Christiansen, & H. Chandan (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Organizational Culture and Diversity in the Modern Workforce (pp. 181-216). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

The impact of physical and virtual environments on human emotions: A pilot study in an adult and community education setting

The impact of physical and virtual environments on human emotions: A pilot study in an adult and community education setting

Jonathan Bishop and Piet Kommers

Abstract

This paper concerns an experiment that attempts to understand the impact the physical and virtual environment can have on human emotions. To do this four blended learning workshops are held covering different amounts of technology enhanced learning based on the blended learning continuum. In each workshop there are two of the same participants – one who is autistic and one who is empathic – and then other participants are introduced depending on the aesthetics of the workshop. The study finds that learners deemed ‘empathic’ require less brain processing for befriending than people deemed ‘autistic’ do and that those deemed autistic treat every environment the same way and at the same time those deemed ‘empathic’ focus more on befriending others, regardless of the environment they are in.

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2016). The impact of physical and virtual environments on human emotions: A pilot study in an adult and community education setting. The 14th International Conference on Scientific Computing. 25-28 July 2016. Las Vegas, NV. Available online: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-impact-of-virtual-and-physical-environments-on-human-emotion.pdf

The empathic psychopathy in public life: Towards an understanding of ‘autism’ and ’empathism’; as ‘dopaminergic-serotonergic asynchronicity’

The empathic psychopathy in public life: Towards an understanding of ‘autism’ and ’empathism’ and ‘dopaminergic-serotonergic asynchronicity’

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

So-called ‘autism’ is a generally well understood condition yet it is claimed has no known cure, is best dealt with through “early intervention,” and to many is deserving of pity. This poster shows an aetiology of ‘autism’ and what can be called ’empathism’ as being caused by ‘dopaminergic-serotonergic asynchronicity’ that results in ‘autistic’ functions of the brain and ‘empathic’ ones being used unequally, with one being more predominant than the other. The poster argues that those who overuse the ‘empathic’ parts of the brain suffer from ‘empathism’ which impairs their relationship skills as much as social skills are impaired in people with ‘autism,’ who overuse the ‘autistic’ parts of their brain. The poster concludes by discussing how the researcher’s advancements in affective computing could be used to assist people with the symptoms of obsessive compulsive and narcissistic disorders that result from the mental dependence to an imbalance in serotonin and dopamine activity in the brain. The poster displays two diagrams linking these together, including the relationship between autism and empathism with regards to other so-called personality disorders.

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Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2013). ‘The empathic psychopathy in public life: Towards an understanding of ‘autism’ and ’empathism’ and ‘dopaminergic-serotonergic asynchronicity.‘ Poster presented to the Implications of Research on the Neuroscience of Affect, Attachment, and Social Cognition Conference. 18th May 2013 – 19th May 2013. University College London, London, GB. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-empathic-psychopathy-in-public-life.pdf

Increasing Capital Revenue in Social Networking Communities: Building Social and Economic Relationships through Avatars and Characters

Increasing Capital Revenue in Social Networking Communities: Building Social and Economic Relationships through Avatars and Characters

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The rise of online communities in Internet environments has set in motion an unprecedented shift in power from vendors of goods and services to the customers who buy them, with those vendors who understand this transfer of power and choose to capitalize on it by organizing online communities and being richly rewarded with both peerless customer loyalty and impressive economic returns. A type of online community, the virtual world, could radically alter the way people work, learn, grow consume, and entertain. Understanding the exchange of social and economic capital in online communities could involve looking at what causes actors to spend their resources on improving someone else’s reputation. Actors’ reputations may affect others’ willingness to trade with them or give them gifts. Investigating online communities reveals a large number of different characters and associated avatars. When an actor looks at another’s avatar they will evaluate them and make decisions that are crucial to creating interaction between customers and vendors in virtual worlds based on the exchange of goods and services. This paper utilizes the ecological cognition framework to understand transactions, characters and avatars in virtual worlds and investigates the exchange of capital in a bulletin board and virtual. The chapter finds strong evidence for the existence of characters and stereotypes based on the Ecological Cognition Framework and empirical evidence that actors using avatars with antisocial connotations are more likely to have a lower return on investment and be rated less positively than those with more sophisticated appearing avatars.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2013). Increasing Capital Revenue in Social Networking Communities: Building Social and Economic Relationships through Avatars and Characters. In: J. Bishop (Ed.) Examining the Concepts, Issues and Implications of Internet Trolling. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/increasing-capital-revenue-in-social-networking-communities-building-social-and-economic-relationships-through-avatars-and-characters.pdf

Jonathan Bishop (2011). Increasing Capital Revenue in Social Networking Communities: Building Social and Economic Relationships through Avatars and Characters. In: IRMA (Ed.). Virtual Communities: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications. IGI Global: Hershey, PA; pages 1720-1734. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/increasing-capital-revenue-in-social-networking-communities-building-social-and-economic-relationships-through-avatars-and-characters.pdf

Jonathan Bishop (2008). Increasing Capital Revenue in Social Networking Communities: Building Social and Economic Relationships through Avatars and Characters. In: C. Romm-Livermore & K. Setzekorn (Eds.). Social Networking Communities and EDating Services: Concepts and Implications. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/increasing-capital-revenue-in-social-networking-communities-building-social-and-economic-relationships-through-avatars-and-characters.pdf

The Psychology of Trolling and Lurking: The Role of Defriending and Gamification for Increasing Participation in Online Communities Using Seductive Narratives

The Psychology of Trolling and Lurking: The Role of Defriending and Gamification for Increasing Participation in Online Communities Using Seductive Narratives

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The rise of social networking services have furthered the proliferation of online communities, transferring the power of controlling access to content from often one person who operates a system (sysop), which they would normally rely on, to them personally. With increased participation in social networking and services come new problems and issues, such as trolling, where unconstructive messages are posted to incite a reaction, and lurking, where persons refuse to participate. Methods of dealing with these abuses included defriending, which can include blocking strangers. The Gamified Flow of Persuasion model is proposed, building on work in ecological cognition and the participation continuum, the chapter shows how all of these models can collectively be used with gamification principles to increase participation in online communities through effective management of lurking, trolling, and defriending.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2014). The Psychology of Trolling and Lurking: The Role of Defriending and Gamification for Increasing Participation in Online Communities Using Seductive Narratives. In: J. Bishop (Ed.) Gamification for Human Factors Integration: Social, Education, and Psychological Issues. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-psychology-of-trolling-and-lurking-defriending-gamification.pdf

Jonathan Bishop (2013). The Psychology of Trolling and Lurking: The Role of Defriending and Gamification for Increasing Participation in Online Communities Using Seductive Narratives. In: J. Bishop (Ed.) Examining the Concepts, Issues, and Implications of Internet Trolling. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-psychology-of-trolling-and-lurking-defriending-gamification.pdf

Jonathan Bishop (2012). The Psychology of Trolling and Lurking: The Role of Defriending and Gamification for Increasing Participation in Online Communities Using Seductive Narratives. In: H. Li (Ed.) Virtual Community Participation and Motivation: Cross-Disciplinary Theories. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-psychology-of-trolling-and-lurking-defriending-gamification.pdf

Enhancing the understanding of genres of web-based communities: the role of the ecological cognition framework

Enhancing the understanding of genres of web-based communities: The role of the ecological cognition framework

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Web-based communities have been an interest of social science researchers since the dawn of the millennium. To date, much research into them has focused on the methods to enhance community building and understand those who do not participate in community life, known as lurkers. This paper explores web-based communities as a type of media, classifying types of web-based community such as message boards, chat groups and weblogs as genres. A methodology is proposed based on the Ecological Cognition Framework (ECF) for reading these web-based communities in order to determine their genre and subgenre. Utilising both quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the images, text and other artefacts in these web-based communities, two specific sub-genres of the weblogs and directories genre emerge as the political blog and the mommy blog and these are compared with the significant differences that are found between them that make them solid subgenres.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2009). Enhancing the understanding of genres of web-based communities: The role of the ecological cognition framework. International Journal of Web-Based Communities, 5(1), 4-17. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/enhancing-the-understanding-of-genres-of-web-based-communities-the-role-of-the-ecological-cognition-framework.pdf

The Role of Multi-Agent Social Networking Systems in Ubiquitous Education: Enhancing Peer-Supported Reflective Learning

The Role of Multi-Agent Social Networking Systems in Ubiquitous Education: Enhancing Peer-Supported Reflective Learning

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Knowledge it could be argued is constructed from the information actors pick up from the environments they are in. Understanding the networks of practice in which these e-learning systems are part of requires a deeper understanding of information science frameworks. The Ecological Cognition Framework (ECF) provides a thorough understanding of how actors respond to and influence their environment. Utilising the ECF, this chapter proposes a multi-agent e-learning system called the Portable Assistant for Intelligently Guided Education (PAIGE), which is based around a 3D anthropomorphic avatar for educating actors ubiquitously. An investigation into the market for PAIGE was carried out. The data showed that those that thought their peers were the best form of support were less likely to spend more of their free time on homework. The chapter suggests that future research could investigate the usage of systems like PAIGE in educational settings and the effect they have on learning outcomes.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2009). The Role of Multi-Agent Social Networking Systems in Ubiquitous Education: Enhancing Peer-Supported Reflective Learning. In: T.T. Goh (Ed.). Multiplatform E-Learning Systems and Technologies: Mobile Devices for Ubiquitous ICT-Based Education. IGI Global: New York, NY (Pages 72-88). Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-role-of-multi-agent-social-networking-systems-in-ubiquitous-education-paige-jonathanbishop.pdf

Understanding and facilitating the development of social networks in online dating communities: A Case Study and Model

Understanding and facilitating the development of social networks in online dating communities: A Case Study and Model

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Online dating is a big business, allowing people from the comfort of their own home to view and read about potential mates all around the world. Different dating sites offer different services. However, it is not yet commonplace for websites dedicated to dating to use the social networking tools used by popular online communities, such as those that use the personal homepage and message board genres. The Ecological Cognition Framework (ECF) provides a theoretical model regarding online dating communities’ behavior and relationship development. A model based on the ECF is proposed and provides a basis for developing online dating services that effectively support relationship development. Two investigations are presented in this chapter, one that uses a case study approach to identify and describe online dating services from the perspective of a specific case and another that assess the effectiveness of existing online dating services based on the guidelines developed from the case study. The case study provides a useful insight into the nature of social networking from the perspective of a specific case, which led to guidelines for developing e-dating systems that when evaluated showed that the most popular social networking services also score well against the criteria proposed in those guidelines.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2008). Understanding and facilitating the development of social networks in online dating communities: A Case Study and Model. In: C. Romm-Livermore & K. Setzekorn (eds.). Social Networking Communities and EDating Services: Concepts and Implications. IGI Global: New York. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/understanding-and-facilitating-the-development-of-social-networks-in-online-dating-communities-a-case-study-and-model.pdf

Ecological Cognition: A New Dynamic for Human-Computer Interaction

Ecological Cognition: A New Dynamic for Human-Computer Interaction

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Human computer interaction (HCI) is the study of the interaction between actors and their computer environments. It has long been argued that psychology has an important role to play in HCI, but that detailing its role has been difficult. In the 20th century there were two domination approaches to designing human-computer systems, that being the cognitive approach, which was heavily based on the information processing model and the behaviourist approach, which was based on the stimuli-response theory that behaviour can be reinforced through rewards, which was particularly evident in e-learning systems. Human-Computer Interaction could benefit from a new approach based on the understanding that actors act as a result of experiencing an impetus, such as an affordance, developing the intent, experiencing forces, experiencing a neuro-response, such as a desire, and making a judgement by resolving dissonance. The design and management of virtual communities can be enhanced through realising that actors who do not contribute to these communities may have a desire to do so, but will have to resolve their dissonance to experience intemperance as opposed to temperance. Human-computer systems that attempt to seduce the user could be improved through developers understanding that actors will continue using a system if they believe their goals will be met and the affordances offered by the system are consonant with their existing goals, plans, values, beliefs and interests. E-learning systems could be made more persuasive through proposing beliefs that may be contradictory to the existing beliefs of an actor, but are consonant with their goals. Artificially intelligent agents could be made more lifelike, by experiencing desires and experiencing and resolving dissonance. Such agents could be useful in both e-learning system and systems that attempt to improve the health of actors. Computer-supported cognitive therapy systems could be improved by identifying and eliminating dissonance that an actor has experienced but not resolved.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2007) Ecological Cognition: A New Dynamic for Human-Computer Interaction. In: B. Wallace, A. Ross, J. Davies & T. Anderson (eds.). The Mind, the Body and the World: Psychology after Cognitivism. Imprint Academic: Exeter, pp. 327-345. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/ecological-cognition-a-new-dynamic-for-human-computer-interaciton.pdf

Social change in organic and virtual communities: An exploratory study of Bishop Desires

Social change in organic and virtual communities: An exploratory study of Bishop Desires

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Social change in organic and virtual communities is achieved through actors experiencing desires to carry out an action and acting them out. Ecological cognition has explained how actors act in their environment through identifying five desires that an actor experiences in an environment. This paper investigates the existence of such desires in organic and virtual communities, through carrying out a case study of a popular virtual community and analysing the Scriptures and extends the model of ecological cognition to include five opposite desires. The paper identifies three sources of desires that lead to social change, which are through an actor perceiving affordances in artefacts, through picking up resonances from other actors and through picking out cognizances in their thoughts. The role of divine command in the origin of such desires is explored as is how actors deal with desires and how they validate them. Finally, guidelines for developers of virtual communities to take into account the existence of desires in developing these environments are provided.

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Social change in organic and virtual communities: An exploratory study of Bishop Desires

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2006). Social change in organic and virtual communities: An exploratory study of Bishop Desires. Paper
presented to the Faith, Spirituality and Social Change Conference, University of Winchester, 8th April 2006. Available online at: http://www.jonathanbishop.com/Library/Documents/EN/docFSSC2006.pdf