Tag Archives: Internet Trolling Research

Transforming the UK Home Office into a Department for Homeland Security: Reflecting on an Interview with a Litigant Defending Against Online Retaliatory Feedback in the US

Transforming the UK Home Office into a Department for Homeland Security: Reflecting on an Interview with a Litigant Defending Against Online Retaliatory Feedback in the US

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Retaliatory feedback is a significant problem on the Internet, which is not just confined to online auction websites, but other online environments dependent on reputation systems. Explored in this paper are the acts of an Internet troller who spread malicious and false allegations that the series of conferences called WORLDCOMP are “fake.” This paper interviews one of the organisers of this conference to ask how they went about dealing with the retaliatory feedback, and in particular their engagement with law enforcement agencies, such as from the FBI to the US Department of Homeland Security. To reform the UK Home Office to learn lessons from this, the paper proposes making greater use of National Crime Agency and Police and Crime Commissioners to provide a better strategic set-up for law enforcement under the UK Home Office. It also suggest using publicly funded solicitors and community wardens, as opposed to the current set-up of police constables, to deal with community policing.

References

  • Jonathan Bishop (2017). Transforming the UK Home Office into a Department for Homeland Security: Reflecting on an Interview with a Litigant Defending Against Online Retaliatory Feedback in the US. International Journal of Public Administration in the Digital Age.
  • Jonathan Bishop (2014). Transforming the UK Home Office into a Department for Homeland Security: Reflecting on an Interview with a Litigant Defending Against Online Retaliatory Feedback in the US. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 11(4), 511-531.
  • Jonathan Bishop (2016). Retraction of: Transforming the UK Home Office into a Department for Homeland Security: Reflecting on an Interview with a Litigant Defending Against Online Retaliatory Feedback in the US. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 13(1), 1-21.

Digital Teens and the ‘Antisocial Network’: Prevalence of Troublesome Online Youth Groups and Internet trolling in Great Britain

Digital Teens and the ‘Antisocial Network’: Prevalence of Troublesome Online Youth Groups and Internet trolling in Great Britain

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

A concern shared among nearly all generations of adults is that they must do something to tackle the problems in society caused by young people. They often forget that they were once young, and all too often blame young people for all of problems in their community. This paper challenges this view and shows how the blaming of Internet trolling on today’s young people – called digital teens – is probably inaccurate. What might otherwise be called Troublesome Online Youth Groups (TOYGs), this paper looks at data collected from subjects in three UK regions (n=150 to 161), which includes young people who are not in education, employment or training (NEETs). Unlike might be typically thought, the data shows that far from these NEETs being the causes of Internet trolling it is in fact the areas with high levels of productivity, higher education and higher intelligence that report lower perceptions of quality of life that these electronic message faults (EMFts) most occur in.

Full Text

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Digital Teens and the ‘Antisocial Network’: Prevalence of Troublesome Online Youth Groups and Internet trolling in Great Britain. International Journal of E-Politics 5(3), pp.1-15. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/digital-teens-and-the-antisocial-network.pdf

The Impact of the Internet on Transnational Civil Society Networks: The Anonymous Movement Unmasked

The Impact of the Internet on Transnational Civil Society Networks: The Anonymous Movement Unmasked

Shefali Virkar

Abstract

The rise in the number of non-state actors, particularly the emergence of civil society bodies such as NGOs, and the increase of their political influence has thrown up significant questions about how best the Internet and its associated technologies may be harnessed to aid the activities of such organisations. Can the Internet truly augment the effects of those activists, hacktivists, and cyberprotestors seeking to alter the landscape of international relations and political advocacy? This article attempts to answer this question through an examination of the possibly the most iconic, cutting-edge transnational civil society network of the 21st Century: The Anonymous Movement, and the manner in which the collective’s participants and constituent elements have successfully harnessed and have in turn been impacted by the Internet and its associated digital platforms and technologies. The research dealt with herein aims to showcase the various intersecting circumstances that help advance Anonymous’ contemporary geopolitical power, and in doing so, to contribute to that body of empirical political science which recognises the impact and significance of Information and Communication Technologies and their associated digital platforms on transnational protest and advocacy ever since their development and rapid global proliferation in the mid-1990s.

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Citation

Shefali Virkar (2014). The Impact of the Internet on Transnational Civil Society Networks: The Anonymous Movement Unmasked. The International Journal of Trolling and Online Participation 1(2), pp.69-108.

An Hero and the Trolls

An Hero and the Trolls

Lars Konzack

Abstract

This is an investigation into the case of Mitchell Henderson seen in the light of heroes and villains. The MySpace page commemorating Hendersons suicide was subject to a form of activity known as “trolling”, of such intensity that Henderson became an iconic figure, a “meme” in the troll community known as “Anonymous.” Examination of this singular event leads eventually to a wider discussion of what it means to be a hero and whether or not Anonymous should be considered villains, heroes, tricksters or vigilantes. Furthermore, it attempts an understanding of what Anonymous are, how they operate, and insight into their distinctive Internet culture.

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Citation

  • Lars Konzack (2014). An Hero and the Trolls. The International Journal of Trolling and Online Participation 1 (2), pp.5-28.

Viewing Robin Hood and Anonymous as embodiments of non-conformity: A comparative analysis of media-texts used for provoking thoughts of protest, disobedience and idealism

Viewing Robin Hood and Anonymous as embodiments of non-conformity: A comparative analysis of media-texts used for provoking thoughts of protest, disobedience and idealism

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The truth surrounding the existence and origin of Robin Hood has evaded scholars from multiple disciplines for centuries. Robin Hood has been linked to persons or characters in court rolls, plays and other documented references. Some of the oldest records of this infamous and elusive personality include the ballads. These are not however the only media texts referring to Robin Hood, as he has featured in films, TV series, music and video games also. Akin to Robin Hood are the protest movement Anonymous. A group of hacktivists, representing modern day bandits, the comparisons between Robin Hood and Anonymous are endless. This paper examines media-texts relating to Robin Hood in a critical manner and proposes that he exists not as a person but as a metaphor for free speech and anti-establishment sentiment, much in the same way that Anonymous is used today. The paper explores how Robin Hood has been used by the peasants and aristocracy alike to reflect their ideas and ideals relating to the establishment, as a fairy tale, an antidote to economic depressions and for the romanticism associated with the legend. This is compared and contrasted with the same uses of Anonymous, including the ‘Guy Fawkes mask’ that is like Robin’s hood. The paper concludes that even if it is the case that Robin Hood exists only as a metaphor, as Anonymous does to media consumers, it still needs to be established why the rhymes were of ‘Robin Hood’ and not another name or concept.

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Citation

  • Jonathan Bishop (2014). Viewing Robin Hood and Anonymous as embodiments of non-conformity: A comparative analysis of media-texts used for provoking thoughts of protest, disobedience and idealism. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 1(2), pp.29-51

Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma

Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This chapter seeks to explore the role media content ratings play in the age of “Internet trolling” and other electronic media issues like “sexting.” Using ANOVA to validate a four-factor approach to media ratings based on maturity, the chapter finds the ability of a person to withstand various media content, measured in “knol,” which is the brain’s capacity to process information, can be used to calculate media ratings. The study concludes it is feasible to have brain-computer interfaces for PCs and kiosks to test the maturity of vulnerable persons and recommend to parents/guardians or cinema managers whether or not to allow someone access to the content they wish to consume. This could mean that computer software could be programmed to automatically censor content that person is likely to be distressed or grossly offended by. Public policy issues relating to these supply-side interventions are discussed.

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma. In: Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha & Irene Maria Portela (Eds.). Handbook of Research on
Digital Crime, Cyberspace Security, and Information Assurance. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/trolling-is-not-just-a-art-it-is-an-science.pdf

My Click is My Bond: The Role of Contracts, Social Proof, and Gamification for Sysops to Reduce Pseudo-Activism and Internet Trolling

My Click is My Bond: The Role of Contracts, Social Proof, and Gamification for Sysops to Reduce Pseudo-Activism and Internet Trolling

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The growth in Internet use is not only placing pressure on service providers to maintain adequate bandwidth but also the people who run the Websites that operate through them. Called systems operators, or sysops, these people face a number of different obligations arising out of the use of their computermediated communication platforms. Most notable are contracts, which nearly all Websites have, and in the case of e-commerce sites in the European Union, there are contractual terms they must have. This chapter sets out to investigate how the role contract law can both help and hinder sysops and their users. Sysop powers are limited by sysop prerogative, which is everything they can do which has not been taken away by statute or given away by contract. The chapter finds that there are a number of special considerations for sysops in how they use contracts in order that they are not open to obligations through disabled or vulnerable users being abused by others.

Full Text

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). My Click is My Bond: The Role of Contracts, Social Proof, and Gamification for Sysops to Reduce Pseudo-Activism and Internet Trolling. In: Jonathan Bishop (Ed.) Gamification for Human Factors Integration: Social, Educational and Psychological Issues. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/my-click-is-my-bond-contracts-social-proof-gamificaiton.pdf

Representations of ‘trolls’ in mass media communication: a review of media-texts and moral panics relating to ‘internet trolling’

Representations of ‘trolls’ in mass media communication: a review of media-texts and moral panics relating to ‘internet trolling’

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

There is a general trend amongst mass media organisations around the world towards concentration of the visual, written and audio packaging and of newspapers, websites and television as channels of information. These platforms are explored in detail in this paper in relation to the moral panics around ‘internet trolling’. This paper discusses the history of trolling in the context of mass media, specifically ‘classical trolling’ and ‘Anonymous trolling’. A review of different media headlines finds that whether or not a story is portrayed in newspapers, online, or on television, the media will use a variety of ways to convey their messages. In the case of ‘trolls’, they show a darker, sinister and transgressive side of cyberspace in the form of abuse and vitriol (i.e., Anonymous trolling). The paper concludes that future research should look in detail at the different character types of internet troller and how these affect the way so called ‘trolls’ are represented in the media and the effect this has on the attitude towards young internet users and trollers in general.

Full Text

References

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Representations of ‘trolls’ in mass media communication: A review of media-texts and moral panics relating to ‘internet trolling.’ International Journal of Web Based Communities 10(1), 7-24. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/representaitons-of-trolls-in-mass-media-communication.pdf

The Art of Trolling Law Enforcement: A Review and Model for implementing ‘flame trolling’ legislation enacted in Great Britain (1981-2012)

The Art of Trolling Law Enforcement: A Review and Model for implementing ‘flame trolling’ legislation enacted in Great Britain (1981-2012)

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

While trolling has existed as a term since the 1990s and as a reality even earlier there has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of the abusive kind – ‘flame trolling’. Mistakenly the media calls these flame trollers, ‘trolls’, when in fact there are more often than not ‘Snerts’ and ‘E-Vengers’. The justice system in Great Britain has taken a sporadic approach to dealing with flame trolling, and the wide range of legislation that has existed since the 1980s has no strategic method to assign its usage on the basis of the nature of the flame trolling as its use often depends on the whim of different police forces. This paper hopes to change this. After a brief presentation of the background of Internet trolling in Great Britain and in general a new framework is presented. This allows prosecutors to easily classify flame trolling based on the facts of the case and pick the appropriate level based on the severity.

Full Text

References

Jonathan Bishop (2013). The Art of Trolling Law Enforcement: A Review and Model for implementing ‘flame trolling’ legislation enacted in Great Britain (1981-2012), International Review of Law, Computers and Technology 27(3), 301-318. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-art-of-trolling-law-enforcement-a-review-and-model-for-implementing-flame-trolling-legislation-enacted-in-great-britain-1981-2012.pdf

The effect of deindividuation of the Internet Troller on Criminal Procedure implementation: An interview with a Hater

The effect of deindividuation of the Internet Troller on Criminal Procedure implementation: An interview with a Hater

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Trolling has been one of the most talked about issue in relation to the internet in the second decade of the 21st century to date. Many people have spoken out against those who use the Internet to abuse others. It is clear that on their own, laws are not going to solve the problem of Internet abuse and data misuse, as being tough on crime needs to be matched with being tough on the causes of crime. This paper provides an in depth interview with an Internet troller and discussion of the findings of this to provide a general framework for understanding these ‘electronic message faults.’ The interview with the troller makes it apparent that there are a number of similarities between the proposed anti-social personality disorder in DSM-V and flame trolling activities. An investigation into the application of the Criminal Procedure rules in United Kingdom finds a number of inconsistencies in the way the rules are followed, which it appears are causing injustices in the application of Internet trolling laws.

Full Text

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2013). The effect of deindividuation of the Internet Troller on Criminal Procedure implementation: An interview with a Hater. International Journal of Cyber Criminology 7(1), pp. 28-48. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-effect-of-de-inviduation-of-the-internet-troller-on-criminal-procedure-implementation.pdf