Tag Archives: Internet Trolling Research

Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling

Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Internet trolling describes the posting of any content on the Internet which is provocative or offensive, which is different from the original meaning online in the 1990s, referring to the posting of messages for humourous effect. Those systems operators (sysops) who run online communities are being targeted because of abuse posted on their platforms. Political discussion groups are some of the most prone to trolling, whether consensual or unwanted. Many such websites ara open for anyone to join, meaning when some members post messages they know are offensive but legal, others might find grossly offensive, meaning these messages could be illegal. This paper develops a questionnaire called the This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale (TIWWCHNT-20), which aims to help sysops better plan the development of online communities to take account of different users’ capacity to be offended, and for users to self-assess whether they will be suited to an online community. The scale is discussed in relation to different Internet posting techniques where different users will act differently.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2017). Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling. In Y. Ibrahim (Ed.), Politics, Protest, and Empowerment in Digital Spaces (pp. 153-177). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Available at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/developing-and-validating-tiwwchnt-20-scale.pdf

Trolling for the Lulz?: Using Media Theory to Understand Transgressive Humour and Other Internet Trolling in Online Communities

Trolling for the Lulz?: Using Media Theory to Understand Transgressive Humour and Other Internet Trolling in Online Communities

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Internet trolling as a term has changed in meaning since it first entered mainstream use on the Internet in the 1990s. In the 2010s, it has come to refer to the posting of provocative or offensive messages on the Internet to harm others. This change in usage of the term opens up new challenges for understanding the phenomenon, especially as some are still resistant to taking it beyond its original meaning. This chapter tries to distinguish the 1990s kind from the 2010s kind by referring to the former as classical trolling and the latter as anonymous trolling. Taking part in the former is considered to be “trolling for the Lolz” (i.e. positive) and the second to mean “trolling for the Lulz” (i.e. negative). Through using document and genre analysis, this chapter finds that there are common ways in which anonymous trolling manifests differently on different platforms. The chapter concludes by presenting a model for understanding which genres of online community are at risk for particular types of trolling.

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Trolling for the Lulz?: Using Media Theory to Understand Transgressive Humour and Other Internet Trolling in Online Communities. In: Jonathan Bishop (Ed.) Transforming Politics and Policy in the Digital Age. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. (pages 155-172). Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/trolling-for-the-lulz-using-media-theory-to-understand-transgressive-humour-and-other-internet-trolling-in-online-communities.pdf

Avoiding Adverse Consequences from Digital Addiction and Retaliatory Feedback: The Role of the Participation Continuum

Avoiding Adverse Consequences from Digital Addiction and Retaliatory Feedback: The Role of the Participation Continuum

Ashu M.G. Solo and Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This chapter looks at the role of the participation continuum in helping to improve relationships that have been damaged as a result of digital addiction. Digital addiction in this context refers to what happens when a person with a compulsion who is not getting that compulsion fulfilled turns to the Internet and other digital technologies in order to fill the void. The chapter is a case study of two people called Person D and Person G in order to make them anonymous. Using medical and other records, it was found that a number of different interventions using the participation continuum could have resulted in changes in the relationship in either holding it together or preventing one party from posting malicious and defamatory comments. The chapter found that a theoretical model, with algorithmic principles applied, called the transitional flow of persuasion model would be able to understand the impacts of digital addiction and provide a means to remedy it.

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Avoiding Adverse Consequences from Digital Addiction and Retaliatory Feedback: The Role of the Participatio… by Jonathan Bishop

Reference

Ashu M. G. Solo & Jonathan Bishop (2015). Avoiding Adverse Consequences from Digital Addiction and Retaliatory Feedback: The Role of the Participation Continuum. In J. Bishop (Ed.), Psychological and Social Implications Surrounding Internet and Gaming Addiction (pp. 62-77). IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://www.jonathanbishop.com/Library/Documents/EN/docIGIPaper_AddictionRetaliatoryFeedback.pdf

Determining the Risk of Digital Addiction to Adolescent Targets of Internet Trolling: Implications for the UK Legal System

Determining the Risk of Digital Addiction to Adolescent Targets of Internet Trolling: Implications for the UK Legal System

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Research on digital addiction has been increasing significantly since the start of the 2010s. What is not currently available is a measurement scale to assess the extent to which adolescents are at risk of abuse on the Internet that might lead them to develop digital addiction. This chapter sets out to develop a check-list that can be used to risk assess those youths who might be at risk of digital addiction. Through using data from a study into 1,828 young people aged 9-16, the study devised a 6-point check-list based on using a t-test to determine those at high risk and those at low risk. The check-list can be seen as a reliable way for screening those adolescents for whom concerns are raised over their online activities. The chapter concludes that further research will be needed to test the scale with people in older age ranges.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2015). Determining the Risk of Digital Addiction to Adolescent Targets of Internet Trolling: Implications for the UK Legal System. In J. Bishop (Ed.), Psychological and Social Implications Surrounding Internet and Gaming Addiction (pp. 31-42). IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/determining-the-risk-of-digital-addiction-to-adolescent-targets-of-internet-trolling.pdf

Review: Bromley’s Family Law by Nigel Lowe and Gillian Douglas

Review: Bromley’s Family Law by Nigel Lowe and Gillian Douglas

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Bromley’s Family Law is a long established core text for students of family law, and this 2015 edition was an attempt to update it. In terms of contemporary issues like Internet trolling and digital addiction, the authors of the book, Nigel Lowe and Gillian Douglas, fail to capture any of the implications contemporary technologies and cultures have had on family law. The absence of discussion of social media, particularly how Crown Prosecution Service guidance relating to it can impact on the enforcement of court orders and the treatment of children and those lacking maturity, is concerning. If one takes a traditional approach to family law this might be a worthwhile textbook, but on any programme looking for how technology has impacted on family law, it is not suitable for the age we are in.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2015). Review: Bromley’s Family Law by Nigel Lowe and Gillian Douglas. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 2(1), pp.47-51. Available at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/bromleys-family-law-by-nigel-lowe-and-gillian-douglas.pdf

The persuasive properties of representing gender and blame in online news reporting of Internet trolling: A case study of Liam Stacey, Fabrice Muamba, Peter Nunn and Stella Creasy

The persuasive properties of representing gender and blame in online news reporting of Internet trolling: A case study of Liam Stacey, Fabrice Muamba, Peter Nunn and Stella Creasy

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This paper presents a study into two news articles on Internet trolling – one sourced from already communicated media and one generated by the author. The articles were evaluated by interviewing someone who regularly reads online news content. It was found that intended messages in news articles can often be picked up by those reading it, but it does not automatically mean those messages will be accepted by them.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2015). The persuasive properties of representing gender and blame in online news reporting of Internet trolling: A case study of Liam Stacey, Fabrice Muamba, Peter Nunn and Stella Creasy. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 2(1), 27-37. Available online: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-persuasive-properties-of-representing-gender-and-blame-in-online-news-reporting-of-internet-trolling.pdf

Trolls Just Want To Have Fun: Electronic Aggression within the Context of e-Participation and Other Online Political Behaviour in the United Kingdom

Trolls Just Want To Have Fun: Electronic Aggression within the Context of e-Participation and Other Online Political Behaviour in the United Kingdom

Shefali Virkar

Abstract

Over the last two decades, public confidence and trust in Government has declined visibly in several Western liberal democracies owing to a distinct lack of opportunities for citizen participation in political processes; and has instead given way instead to disillusionment with current political institutions, actors, and practices. The rise of the Internet as a global communications medium and the advent of digital platforms has opened up huge opportunities and raised new challenges for public institutions and agencies, with digital technology creating new forms of community; empowering citizens and reforming existing power structures in a way that has rendered obsolete or inappropriate many of the tools and processes of traditional democratic politics. Through an analysis of the No. 10 Downing Street ePetitions Initiative based in the United Kingdom, this article seeks to engage with issues related to the innovative use of network technology by Government to involve citizens in policy processes within existing democratic frameworks in order to improve administration, to reform democratic processes, and to renew citizen trust in institutions of governance. In particular, the work seeks to examine whether the application of the new Information and Communication Technologies to participatory democracy in the Government 2.0 era would eventually lead to radical transformations in government functioning, policymaking, and the body politic, or merely to modest, unspectacular political reform and to the emergence of technology-based, obsessive-compulsive pathologies and Internet-based trolling behaviours amongst individuals in society.

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Reference

Shefali Virkar (2014). Trolls Just Want to Have Fun: Electronic Aggression Within the Context of e-Participation and Other Online Political Behaviour in the United Kingdom’, International Journal of E-Politics (Special Issue), Volume 5, Issue 4, pp. 20-50.

Cyber-stalking or just plain talking?: Linguistic properties of rape-threat messages reflect underlying compulsive behaviours

Cyber-stalking or just plain talking?: Investigating the linguistic properties of rape-threat messages as compulsive behaviours

Mark Beech and Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Rape call-out trolling, more commonly known as ‘rape-threat trolling,’ occurs when a person using a communication network sends a message relating to them ‘raping’ that person. Whilst this may disgust many people, this chapter finds that not all instances of rape call-out trolling is done to cause a person apprehension. The chapter finds that many Twitter users make rape threats to their friends in an affectionate way, and so appreciating the context of rape-threat messages is essential. The most notable targets of rape call-out trolling, Caroline Criado-Perez and Stella Creasy, were targeted following calling for less men to appear on British banknotes. These two findings have implications for public policy makers who are quite happy to see people go to jail for posting rape-threats when they were drunk, namely Isabella Sorley. The chapter concludes the context around rape-threat postings needs more consideration to determine what the core meanings are.

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Reference

Mark Beech and Jonathan Bishop (2015). Cyber-stalking or just plain talking?: Linguistic properties of rape-threat messages reflect underlying compulsive behaviours. In: Jonathan Bishop (Ed.) Psychological and Social Issues Surrounding Internet and Gaming Addiction. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/cyber-stalking-or-just-plain-talking-investigating-the-linguistic-priperities-of-rape-threat-messages-as-compulsive-behavours.pdf

The death of Jill Meagher: Crime and punishment on social media

The death of Jill Meagher: Crime and punishment on social media

Sanja Milivojevic & Alyce McGovern

Abstract

In this paper we analyse the kidnapping, rape and murder of Jill Meagher to highlight a range of issues that emerge in relation to criminalisation, crime prevention and policing strategies on social media, issues that, in our opinion, require immediate and thorough theoretical engagement. An in‐depth analysis of Jill Meagher’s case and its newsworthiness in traditional media is a challenging task that is beyond the scope of this paper. Rather, the focus for this particular paper is on the process of agenda‐building, particularly via social media, the impact of the social environment, and the capacity of ‘ordinary’ citizens to influence the agenda‐defining process. In addition, we analyse the depth of the target audience on social media, the threat of a ‘trial by social media’, and the place of social media in the context of pre‐crime and surveillance debates. Finally, we call for more audacious and critical engagement by criminologists and social scientists in addressing the challenges posed by new technologies.

Citation

Sanja Milivojevic & Alyce McGovern (2014). The death of Jill Meagher: Crime and punishment on social media. International journal for crime, justice and social democracy, 3(3), 22-39. Available at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-death-of-jill-meagher-crime-and-punishment.pdf

Dealing with Internet Trolling in Political Online Communities: Towards the This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale

Dealing with Internet Trolling in Political Online Communities: Towards the This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Internet trolling has become a popularly used term to describe the posting of any content on the Internet which is provocative or offensive. This is different from the original meaning online in the 1990s, which referred to the posting of provocative messages for humourous effect. Those systems operators (sysops) who run online communities are finding they are being targeted because of abuse posted on their platforms. Political discussion groups are some of the most prone to trolling, whether consensual or unwanted. Many such websites ara open for anyone to join, meaning when some members post messages they know are offensive but legal, others might find grossly offensive, meaning these messages could be illegal. This paper develops a questionnaire called the This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale (TIWWCHNT-20), which aims to help sysops better plan the development of online communities to take account of different users’ capacity to be offended, and for users to self-assess whether they will be suited to an online community. The scale is discussed in relation to different Internet posting techniques where different users will act differently.

Full Text

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Dealing with Internet Trolling in Political Online Communities: Towards the This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale. International Journal of E-Politics 5(4), 1-20. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/dealing-with-internet-trolling-in-political-online-communities-towards-the-this-is-why-we-cant-have-nice-things-scale.pdf