Tag Archives: Media Communication

Overcoming the Legal Challenges of News Reporting: A Case Study of a Start-Up News Corporation

Overcoming the Legal Challenges of News Reporting: A Case Study of a Start-Up News Corporation

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

When one thinks of barriers to setting up a news corporation, one might think in terms of the costs of machinery and staffing. This case study of a start-up news corporation called Crocels News shows that the biggest cost can be in resolving legal disputes, most significantly from news articles scrutinising public bodies and their staff. This chapter investigates the difficulties faced by Crocels News in providing news content. By considering the legal correspondence received, the chapter provides insights into some of the problems all news services are likely to experience if they do not have access to the huge legal budgets of the established news corporations. The findings are particularly worrying for emerging forms of news reporting, such as citizen journalism. The chapter therefore proposes changes in statute so that case law that protects free speech is more easily enforced.

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2017). Overcoming the Legal Challenges of News Reporting: A Case Study of a Start-Up News Corporation. In N. Mhiripiri, & T. Chari (Eds.), Media Law, Ethics, and Policy in the Digital Age (pp. 146-163). Hershey, PA: IGI

An evaluation of social media use in a golf club

An evaluation of social media use in a golf club

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This article looks at the social media strategy used in a golf club, namely Pontypridd Golf Club. It compares what it was like prior to the advent of social media and afterwards. It does this through interviewing one of the club’s former golf captains, who was involved on both occasions. The study finds that one of the factors most affecting whether the golf club took up social media was the skill of the officers that ran the club. It was expected that a technology office would exist in order to update the website. It was not expected that officers with a particular portfolio would update the parts of the website within their own remit. Understandably, systems like WordPress were deemed complex, but even Facebook was updated by an individual rather than the officers concerned. The study concludes that increasing digital literacy will be essential to making social media use common in golf clubs and potentially any social or recreational group

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Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2016). An evaluation of social media use in a golf club. The 17th International Conference on Internet Computing and Internet of Things (ICOMP’16), 25-28 July 2016, Las Vegas, USA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/social-media-use-in-a-golf-club.pdf

Trolling for the Lulz?: Using Media Theory to Understand Transgressive Humour and Other Internet Trolling in Online Communities

Trolling for the Lulz?: Using Media Theory to Understand Transgressive Humour and Other Internet Trolling in Online Communities

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Internet trolling as a term has changed in meaning since it first entered mainstream use on the Internet in the 1990s. In the 2010s, it has come to refer to the posting of provocative or offensive messages on the Internet to harm others. This change in usage of the term opens up new challenges for understanding the phenomenon, especially as some are still resistant to taking it beyond its original meaning. This chapter tries to distinguish the 1990s kind from the 2010s kind by referring to the former as classical trolling and the latter as anonymous trolling. Taking part in the former is considered to be “trolling for the Lolz” (i.e. positive) and the second to mean “trolling for the Lulz” (i.e. negative). Through using document and genre analysis, this chapter finds that there are common ways in which anonymous trolling manifests differently on different platforms. The chapter concludes by presenting a model for understanding which genres of online community are at risk for particular types of trolling.

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Trolling for the Lulz?: Using Media Theory to Understand Transgressive Humour and Other Internet Trolling in Online Communities. In: Jonathan Bishop (Ed.) Transforming Politics and Policy in the Digital Age. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. (pages 155-172). Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/trolling-for-the-lulz-using-media-theory-to-understand-transgressive-humour-and-other-internet-trolling-in-online-communities.pdf

The persuasive properties of representing gender and blame in online news reporting of Internet trolling: A case study of Liam Stacey, Fabrice Muamba, Peter Nunn and Stella Creasy

The persuasive properties of representing gender and blame in online news reporting of Internet trolling: A case study of Liam Stacey, Fabrice Muamba, Peter Nunn and Stella Creasy

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This paper presents a study into two news articles on Internet trolling – one sourced from already communicated media and one generated by the author. The articles were evaluated by interviewing someone who regularly reads online news content. It was found that intended messages in news articles can often be picked up by those reading it, but it does not automatically mean those messages will be accepted by them.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2015). The persuasive properties of representing gender and blame in online news reporting of Internet trolling: A case study of Liam Stacey, Fabrice Muamba, Peter Nunn and Stella Creasy. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 2(1), 27-37. Available online: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-persuasive-properties-of-representing-gender-and-blame-in-online-news-reporting-of-internet-trolling.pdf

Private Lives or Public Property?: The impact of the Leveson Inquiry on Internet security and privacy in the European Union

Private Lives or Public Property?: The impact of the Leveson Inquiry on Internet security and privacy in the European Union

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The biggest story in the newspapers of 2012 probably made it into the Leveson Inquiry. This celebrity infested public inquiry intended to be the basis on which the press would be reformed to perform its role as information sources that scrutinise those with power more effectively. Leveson considered issues such as phone hacking and the distribution of private information online. The law is less clear since the publication of the Leveson Inquiry. This paper, therefore, explores the role that European Union law in the areas of property and privacy has on the way the media operates to affect security and privacy. This is achieved through exploring the data security and privacy issues surrounding the British Royal Family, where such issues came to the forefront following the exposure of explicit photographs of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, William Wales and Kate Middleton, and also those of Harry Wales.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2015). Private Lives or Public Property?: The impact of the Leveson Inquiry on Internet security and privacy in the European Union. The 14th International Conference on Security and Management (SAM’15). 27-30 July 2015, Las Vegas, NV. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-impact-of-the-internet-on-data-security-and-privacy-in-the-european-union.pdf

The Misrepresentation of Digital Teens as Trolls: Considering Political, News and Feminist Agendas

The Misrepresentation of Digital Teens as Trolls: Considering Political, News and Feminist Agendas

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

If one pays attention to popular culture and the mass media, Internet trolls are unemployed young men in their 20s at home in their parents’ basement spending their time posting abusive messages online. This study finds that this stereotype, whilst common in the mass media, is not representative of the empirical data collected. The research found that most trolling on blogs and defriending is done by women and because of other women. It finds that the people who troll are unlikely to be youths not in education, employment or training (NEETs), but more likely to be those in wealthy areas who are bored. It equally finds that those who troll, or indeed troll-call, are likely to show the symptoms of antisocial personality disorder and histrionic personality disorder respectively. With the media focussing on represent young people as trolls, the research finds that the existence of benevolent sexism in the police perpetuates this myth, meaning women are getting more favourably treatment, either as trolls or troll-callers. In fact the research finds trolls are as likely to be men or women, and they will change the way they troll based on their target, meaning feminists deemed misandrist will face sexist posts including from women, but the same trolls, regardless of their sex, would have used racist remarks if the feminists calling for more rights for women were Black and calling for more rights for Black people. The research concludes that deterring trolling requires a community-led approach, where local government can use their law enforcement powers, such as to issue fixed penalty notices or anti-social behaviour orders, against those trolls they can prove took part in trolling by using their surveillance rights.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2015). The Misrepresentation of Digital Teens as Trolls: Considering Political, News and Feminist Agendas. Invited Speech to the 13th International Conference on E-Society (E-Society 2015), Madeira, Portugal, 14-16 March 2015.

Godliness next to Anonymous: Anti-establishment rhetoric in Robin Hood ballads and contemporary media texts

Godliness next to Anonymous: Anti-establishment rhetoric in Robin Hood ballads and contemporary media texts

Jonathan Bishop

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2015). Godliness next to Anonymous: Anti-establishment rhetoric in Robin Hood ballads and contemporary media texts. The International Association of Robin Hood Studies (IARHS’2015) Conference. University Centre, Doncaster.

Viewing Robin Hood and Anonymous as embodiments of non-conformity: A comparative analysis of media-texts used for provoking thoughts of protest, disobedience and idealism

Viewing Robin Hood and Anonymous as embodiments of non-conformity: A comparative analysis of media-texts used for provoking thoughts of protest, disobedience and idealism

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The truth surrounding the existence and origin of Robin Hood has evaded scholars from multiple disciplines for centuries. Robin Hood has been linked to persons or characters in court rolls, plays and other documented references. Some of the oldest records of this infamous and elusive personality include the ballads. These are not however the only media texts referring to Robin Hood, as he has featured in films, TV series, music and video games also. Akin to Robin Hood are the protest movement Anonymous. A group of hacktivists, representing modern day bandits, the comparisons between Robin Hood and Anonymous are endless. This paper examines media-texts relating to Robin Hood in a critical manner and proposes that he exists not as a person but as a metaphor for free speech and anti-establishment sentiment, much in the same way that Anonymous is used today. The paper explores how Robin Hood has been used by the peasants and aristocracy alike to reflect their ideas and ideals relating to the establishment, as a fairy tale, an antidote to economic depressions and for the romanticism associated with the legend. This is compared and contrasted with the same uses of Anonymous, including the ‘Guy Fawkes mask’ that is like Robin’s hood. The paper concludes that even if it is the case that Robin Hood exists only as a metaphor, as Anonymous does to media consumers, it still needs to be established why the rhymes were of ‘Robin Hood’ and not another name or concept.

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Citation

  • Jonathan Bishop (2014). Viewing Robin Hood and Anonymous as embodiments of non-conformity: A comparative analysis of media-texts used for provoking thoughts of protest, disobedience and idealism. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 1(2), pp.29-51

Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma

Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This chapter seeks to explore the role media content ratings play in the age of “Internet trolling” and other electronic media issues like “sexting.” Using ANOVA to validate a four-factor approach to media ratings based on maturity, the chapter finds the ability of a person to withstand various media content, measured in “knol,” which is the brain’s capacity to process information, can be used to calculate media ratings. The study concludes it is feasible to have brain-computer interfaces for PCs and kiosks to test the maturity of vulnerable persons and recommend to parents/guardians or cinema managers whether or not to allow someone access to the content they wish to consume. This could mean that computer software could be programmed to automatically censor content that person is likely to be distressed or grossly offended by. Public policy issues relating to these supply-side interventions are discussed.

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma. In: Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha & Irene Maria Portela (Eds.). Handbook of Research on
Digital Crime, Cyberspace Security, and Information Assurance. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/trolling-is-not-just-a-art-it-is-an-science.pdf

‘U r Bias Love:’ Using ‘bleasure’ and ‘motif’ as forensic linguistic means to annotate Twitter and newsblog comments for the purpose of multimedia forensics

‘U r Bias Love:’ Using ‘bleasure’ and ‘motif’ as forensic linguistic means to annotate Twitter and newsblog comments for the purpose of multimedia forensics

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The mass adoption of social media has brought with it the most undesirable aspects of human nature, namely the need to abuse one’s fellow kind for sometimes difficult to understand reasons. There has been severe pressure on law enforcement agencies to respond to this Internet abuse, commonly called Internet trolling. Equally, there has been demands made of social media companies to better police the content on their platforms. There is also the option of civil action for those who have been targeted by the ‘trolls’ who post the abusive comments. This paper suggests understanding UK case law in relation to Internet trolling and cyber-harassment should be done through the prism of the French legal concepts of bleasure (i.e. blessure) and motif. The paper provides a framework for those involved in multimedia forensics to abstract information from identified abusive content (i.e. motifs) to determine whether it would be reasonable to say that such messages harmed a person (i.e. caused a bleasure). Using a corpus linguistics approach, the paper identifies abusive posts made against prominent women public figures on Twitter and newsblogs in the last three years, namely Sally Bercow, Caroline Criado-Perez, Esther McVay and Salma Yaqoob. The paper finds that it is possible to systematically abstract data from social media platforms that both show that an offence has happened (i.e. actus reus, motif), that a person has been harmed (i.e. malum reus, bleasure), and whether it has occurred, or is likely to occur, over a longer period of time (i.e. pertinax reus). This can be done using ‘interface cues’ in the form of authority cues and bandwagon cues, which need to rely on an effective corpus of key terms to be useful.

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). ‘U r Bias Love:’ using ‘bleasure’ and ‘motif’ as forensic linguistic means to annotate Twitter and newsblog comments for the purpose of multimedia forensics. The 11th International Conference on Web Based Communities and Social Media 2014, Lisbon, Portugal, 17–19 July 2014. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/ur-bias-love-using-bleasure-and-motif-as-forensic-linguistic-means-to-annotate-twitter-and-newsblog-comments-for-the-purpose-of-multimedia-forensics.pdf