Tag Archives: Lurking Research

Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling

Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Internet trolling describes the posting of any content on the Internet which is provocative or offensive, which is different from the original meaning online in the 1990s, referring to the posting of messages for humourous effect. Those systems operators (sysops) who run online communities are being targeted because of abuse posted on their platforms. Political discussion groups are some of the most prone to trolling, whether consensual or unwanted. Many such websites ara open for anyone to join, meaning when some members post messages they know are offensive but legal, others might find grossly offensive, meaning these messages could be illegal. This paper develops a questionnaire called the This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale (TIWWCHNT-20), which aims to help sysops better plan the development of online communities to take account of different users’ capacity to be offended, and for users to self-assess whether they will be suited to an online community. The scale is discussed in relation to different Internet posting techniques where different users will act differently.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2017). Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling. In Y. Ibrahim (Ed.), Politics, Protest, and Empowerment in Digital Spaces (pp. 153-177). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Available at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/developing-and-validating-tiwwchnt-20-scale.pdf

The Psychology of Trolling and Lurking: The Role of Defriending and Gamification for Increasing Participation in Online Communities Using Seductive Narratives

The Psychology of Trolling and Lurking: The Role of Defriending and Gamification for Increasing Participation in Online Communities Using Seductive Narratives

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The rise of social networking services have furthered the proliferation of online communities, transferring the power of controlling access to content from often one person who operates a system (sysop), which they would normally rely on, to them personally. With increased participation in social networking and services come new problems and issues, such as trolling, where unconstructive messages are posted to incite a reaction, and lurking, where persons refuse to participate. Methods of dealing with these abuses included defriending, which can include blocking strangers. The Gamified Flow of Persuasion model is proposed, building on work in ecological cognition and the participation continuum, the chapter shows how all of these models can collectively be used with gamification principles to increase participation in online communities through effective management of lurking, trolling, and defriending.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2014). The Psychology of Trolling and Lurking: The Role of Defriending and Gamification for Increasing Participation in Online Communities Using Seductive Narratives. In: J. Bishop (Ed.) Gamification for Human Factors Integration: Social, Education, and Psychological Issues. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-psychology-of-trolling-and-lurking-defriending-gamification.pdf

Jonathan Bishop (2013). The Psychology of Trolling and Lurking: The Role of Defriending and Gamification for Increasing Participation in Online Communities Using Seductive Narratives. In: J. Bishop (Ed.) Examining the Concepts, Issues, and Implications of Internet Trolling. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-psychology-of-trolling-and-lurking-defriending-gamification.pdf

Jonathan Bishop (2012). The Psychology of Trolling and Lurking: The Role of Defriending and Gamification for Increasing Participation in Online Communities Using Seductive Narratives. In: H. Li (Ed.) Virtual Community Participation and Motivation: Cross-Disciplinary Theories. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-psychology-of-trolling-and-lurking-defriending-gamification.pdf

Transformations in Online Communities: From Lurker to Poster

Transformations in Online Communities: From Lurker to Poster’. In: Postgraduate interdisciplinary conference on Transformations

Jonathan Bishop

References

Bishop, J. (2011). ‘Transformations in Online Communities: From Lurker to Poster’. In: Postgraduate interdisciplinary conference on Transformations. Cardiff, UK: Cardiff University Press.

Transforming Lurkers into Posters: The role of the Participation Continuum

Transforming Lurkers into Posters: The role of the Participation Continuum

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Increasing participation has long been seen as a way additional to new technology of helping online communities to grow. Online community managers may well advertise their website on other service platforms, but with up 90% of the visitors to their site being non-participants, referred to as lurkers, they could do no better than improving their website to tackle lurker fears. This paper presents the ‘participation continuum’ for understanding why some users are posters, and do participate, and why others are lurkers, and do not contribute. The paper considers lurkers as victims of the failures of those manage online communities to encourage involvement from them by combating the fears they have. The main fears of lurkers are explored and solutions for overcoming them explained and a study is presented using the participation continuum, which confirms the hypothesis of lurkers being similar to those with social phobia.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2011). Transforming Lurkers into Posters: The role of the Participation Continuum. In: In: V. Grout, R. Picking & D. Oram (Eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Internet Technologies and Applications (ITA11), 6 September 2011, Wrexham, UK: University of Wales Press. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/transforming-lurkers-into-posters-the-role-of-the-participation-continuum.pdf

Increasing membership in online communities: The five principles of managing virtual club economies

Increasing membership in online communities: The five principles of managing virtual club economies

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

It has been argued that the consumption of club goods, where access to them is excludable and non-rivalrous, requires optimal exclusion as well as inclusion. Increasing membership appears to be a particular concern for providers of online communities and in addition increasing the participation of the membership also seems to be important. This paper defines online communities as virtual club economies, as they often exist to allow their members to share club goods. The paper explores various social networking services, finding that those with the highest number of subscriptions follow the guidelines proposed in an influential book on online communities and proposes five principles of managing these virtual club economies. These require as part of a strategy for providers to know their technology, know their subject matter, know their stratum of the wider virtual economy, know their policies and know their purpose. Each of these principles is elaborated on and the paper concludes that the ultimate purpose of a virtual club economy is to maximise the availability of its club goods, such as content to meet its inward goals of sustaining its existence and providing for its membership and wider objectives that suggest a purpose to outsiders and give insiders the motivation to remain as members.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2009). Increasing membership in online communities: The five principles of managing virtual club economies. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Internet Technologies and Applications – ITA09. Wrexham: University of Wales Press. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/increasing-membership-in-online-communities-the-five-principles-of-virtual-club-economies.pdf

Increasing participation in online communities: A framework for human-computer interaction

Increasing participation in online communities: A framework for human-computer interaction

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Online communities are becoming an accepted part of the lives of Internet users, although participation in these communities is dependent on the types of people that form them. Some of the online community’s members do not participate, people referred to as lurkers, whereas others who have been in the community for a long time, referred to as elders, participate regularly and support others. Understanding what drives these individuals and how they chose whether or not to participate will lead to online communities that thrive. This paper proposes a conceptual framework to describe what drives such individuals to carry out actions such as posting messages and adding content (level 1), the cognitions they use to determine whether or not to take such actions (level 2) and the means by which they go about carrying out the action in the environment (level 3). Finally, the framework is applied to the problem of encouraging members to participate by discussing the methods by which people can be persuaded to participate by changing the way they interpret their desires and their environment.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2007). Increasing participation in online communities: A framework for human-computer interaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(4), 1881-1893. Available online: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/increasing-participation-in-online-communities-a-framework-for-human-computer-interaction.pdf.