The Impacts of Alcohol on E-Dating Activity: Increases in Flame Trolling Corresponds with Higher Alcohol Consumption
Jason Barratt and Jonathan Bishop
The impact of alcohol on Internet use is relatively unexplored. This chapter presents the results of a study conducted over a period of 1 year, which investigated whether persons who stated on their e-dating profile that they drank alcohol were more or less likely to contact another person. The study found that increased consumption of alcohol resulted in a person posting more flames (i.e. abusive posts) to their target. No such difference existed in terms of whether a person drank alcohol in relation to whether they had a low education, spoke more about themselves, their target, or whether they posted kudos to their targets. The chapter concludes that further research is needed to uncover the effects of alcohol on participation in social networking services, so that young people, like Liam Stacey and Isabella Sorley are not unfairly targeted for Internet trolling.
The Need for a Dualist Application of Public and Private Law in Great Britain Following the Use of “Flame Trolling” During the 2011 UK Riots: A Review and Model
Mugabi Ivan and Jonathan Bishop
Since time immemorial, the legal systems of Great Britain have often been spoken of highly as pinnacles of democracy. However, the split between criminal law and tort law have often caused problems where the police has often focused on the prosecution of people in poverty and where only the wealthy can afford to use the system. This chapter discusses the extent and limitations of existing measures to tackle computer-related crime, particularly with regards to the abusive kind of Internet Trolling, namely “flame trolling.” The chapter recommends further research to establish whether it should be the case that in a society based on dualism that criminal and civil cases should be held at the same time, and that in both instances those being accused of an offence or tort should be allowed to bring a counter-claim. It is discussed that in such a system the cases that would be brought are where there is a clear victim who had no part in the offence against them, such as murder, rape, theft and burglary, which are usually carefully planned and orchestrated acts.
Cyber-stalking or just plain talking?: Investigating the linguistic properties of rape-threat messages as compulsive behaviours
Mark Beech and Jonathan Bishop
Rape call-out trolling, more commonly known as ‘rape-threat trolling,’ occurs when a person using a communication network sends a message relating to them ‘raping’ that person. Whilst this may disgust many people, this chapter finds that not all instances of rape call-out trolling is done to cause a person apprehension. The chapter finds that many Twitter users make rape threats to their friends in an affectionate way, and so appreciating the context of rape-threat messages is essential. The most notable targets of rape call-out trolling, Caroline Criado-Perez and Stella Creasy, were targeted following calling for less men to appear on British banknotes. These two findings have implications for public policy makers who are quite happy to see people go to jail for posting rape-threats when they were drunk, namely Isabella Sorley. The chapter concludes the context around rape-threat postings needs more consideration to determine what the core meanings are.
Transforming the UK Home Office into a Department for Homeland Security: Reflecting on an Interview with a Litigant Defending Against Online Retaliatory Feedback in the US
Retaliatory feedback is a significant problem on the Internet, which is not just confined to online auction websites, but other online environments dependent on reputation systems. Explored in this paper are the acts of an Internet troller who spread malicious and false allegations that the series of conferences called WORLDCOMP are “fake.” This paper interviews one of the organisers of this conference to ask how they went about dealing with the retaliatory feedback, and in particular their engagement with law enforcement agencies, such as from the FBI to the US Department of Homeland Security. To reform the UK Home Office to learn lessons from this, the paper proposes making greater use of National Crime Agency and Police and Crime Commissioners to provide a better strategic set-up for law enforcement under the UK Home Office. It also suggest using publicly funded solicitors and community wardens, as opposed to the current set-up of police constables, to deal with community policing.
Jonathan Bishop (2017). Transforming the UK Home Office into a Department for Homeland Security: Reflecting on an Interview with a Litigant Defending Against Online Retaliatory Feedback in the US. International Journal of Public Administration in the Digital Age.
Jonathan Bishop (2014). Transforming the UK Home Office into a Department for Homeland Security: Reflecting on an Interview with a Litigant Defending Against Online Retaliatory Feedback in the US. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 11(4), 511-531.
Jonathan Bishop (2016). Retraction of: Transforming the UK Home Office into a Department for Homeland Security: Reflecting on an Interview with a Litigant Defending Against Online Retaliatory Feedback in the US. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 13(1), 1-21.
Representations of ‘trolls’ in mass media communication: a review of media-texts and moral panics relating to ‘internet trolling’
There is a general trend amongst mass media organisations around the world towards concentration of the visual, written and audio packaging and of newspapers, websites and television as channels of information. These platforms are explored in detail in this paper in relation to the moral panics around ‘internet trolling’. This paper discusses the history of trolling in the context of mass media, specifically ‘classical trolling’ and ‘Anonymous trolling’. A review of different media headlines finds that whether or not a story is portrayed in newspapers, online, or on television, the media will use a variety of ways to convey their messages. In the case of ‘trolls’, they show a darker, sinister and transgressive side of cyberspace in the form of abuse and vitriol (i.e., Anonymous trolling). The paper concludes that future research should look in detail at the different character types of internet troller and how these affect the way so called ‘trolls’ are represented in the media and the effect this has on the attitude towards young internet users and trollers in general.
The Art of Trolling Law Enforcement: A Review and Model for implementing ‘flame trolling’ legislation enacted in Great Britain (1981-2012)
While trolling has existed as a term since the 1990s and as a reality even earlier there has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of the abusive kind – ‘flame trolling’. Mistakenly the media calls these flame trollers, ‘trolls’, when in fact there are more often than not ‘Snerts’ and ‘E-Vengers’. The justice system in Great Britain has taken a sporadic approach to dealing with flame trolling, and the wide range of legislation that has existed since the 1980s has no strategic method to assign its usage on the basis of the nature of the flame trolling as its use often depends on the whim of different police forces. This paper hopes to change this. After a brief presentation of the background of Internet trolling in Great Britain and in general a new framework is presented. This allows prosecutors to easily classify flame trolling based on the facts of the case and pick the appropriate level based on the severity.
The effect of deindividuation of the Internet Troller on Criminal Procedure implementation: An interview with a Hater
Trolling has been one of the most talked about issue in relation to the internet in the second decade of the 21st century to date. Many people have spoken out against those who use the Internet to abuse others. It is clear that on their own, laws are not going to solve the problem of Internet abuse and data misuse, as being tough on crime needs to be matched with being tough on the causes of crime. This paper provides an in depth interview with an Internet troller and discussion of the findings of this to provide a general framework for understanding these ‘electronic message faults.’ The interview with the troller makes it apparent that there are a number of similarities between the proposed anti-social personality disorder in DSM-V and flame trolling activities. An investigation into the application of the Criminal Procedure rules in United Kingdom finds a number of inconsistencies in the way the rules are followed, which it appears are causing injustices in the application of Internet trolling laws.