Tag Archives: Cyberlaw Research

Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma

Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This chapter seeks to explore the role media content ratings play in the age of “Internet trolling” and other electronic media issues like “sexting.” Using ANOVA to validate a four-factor approach to media ratings based on maturity, the chapter finds the ability of a person to withstand various media content, measured in “knol,” which is the brain’s capacity to process information, can be used to calculate media ratings. The study concludes it is feasible to have brain-computer interfaces for PCs and kiosks to test the maturity of vulnerable persons and recommend to parents/guardians or cinema managers whether or not to allow someone access to the content they wish to consume. This could mean that computer software could be programmed to automatically censor content that person is likely to be distressed or grossly offended by. Public policy issues relating to these supply-side interventions are discussed.

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma. In: Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha & Irene Maria Portela (Eds.). Handbook of Research on
Digital Crime, Cyberspace Security, and Information Assurance. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/trolling-is-not-just-a-art-it-is-an-science.pdf

My Click is My Bond: The Role of Contracts, Social Proof, and Gamification for Sysops to Reduce Pseudo-Activism and Internet Trolling

My Click is My Bond: The Role of Contracts, Social Proof, and Gamification for Sysops to Reduce Pseudo-Activism and Internet Trolling

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The growth in Internet use is not only placing pressure on service providers to maintain adequate bandwidth but also the people who run the Websites that operate through them. Called systems operators, or sysops, these people face a number of different obligations arising out of the use of their computermediated communication platforms. Most notable are contracts, which nearly all Websites have, and in the case of e-commerce sites in the European Union, there are contractual terms they must have. This chapter sets out to investigate how the role contract law can both help and hinder sysops and their users. Sysop powers are limited by sysop prerogative, which is everything they can do which has not been taken away by statute or given away by contract. The chapter finds that there are a number of special considerations for sysops in how they use contracts in order that they are not open to obligations through disabled or vulnerable users being abused by others.

Full Text

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). My Click is My Bond: The Role of Contracts, Social Proof, and Gamification for Sysops to Reduce Pseudo-Activism and Internet Trolling. In: Jonathan Bishop (Ed.) Gamification for Human Factors Integration: Social, Educational and Psychological Issues. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/my-click-is-my-bond-contracts-social-proof-gamificaiton.pdf

The Art of Trolling Law Enforcement: A Review and Model for implementing ‘flame trolling’ legislation enacted in Great Britain (1981-2012)

The Art of Trolling Law Enforcement: A Review and Model for implementing ‘flame trolling’ legislation enacted in Great Britain (1981-2012)

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

While trolling has existed as a term since the 1990s and as a reality even earlier there has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of the abusive kind – ‘flame trolling’. Mistakenly the media calls these flame trollers, ‘trolls’, when in fact there are more often than not ‘Snerts’ and ‘E-Vengers’. The justice system in Great Britain has taken a sporadic approach to dealing with flame trolling, and the wide range of legislation that has existed since the 1980s has no strategic method to assign its usage on the basis of the nature of the flame trolling as its use often depends on the whim of different police forces. This paper hopes to change this. After a brief presentation of the background of Internet trolling in Great Britain and in general a new framework is presented. This allows prosecutors to easily classify flame trolling based on the facts of the case and pick the appropriate level based on the severity.

Full Text

References

Jonathan Bishop (2013). The Art of Trolling Law Enforcement: A Review and Model for implementing ‘flame trolling’ legislation enacted in Great Britain (1981-2012), International Review of Law, Computers and Technology 27(3), 301-318. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-art-of-trolling-law-enforcement-a-review-and-model-for-implementing-flame-trolling-legislation-enacted-in-great-britain-1981-2012.pdf

The effect of deindividuation of the Internet Troller on Criminal Procedure implementation: An interview with a Hater

The effect of deindividuation of the Internet Troller on Criminal Procedure implementation: An interview with a Hater

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Trolling has been one of the most talked about issue in relation to the internet in the second decade of the 21st century to date. Many people have spoken out against those who use the Internet to abuse others. It is clear that on their own, laws are not going to solve the problem of Internet abuse and data misuse, as being tough on crime needs to be matched with being tough on the causes of crime. This paper provides an in depth interview with an Internet troller and discussion of the findings of this to provide a general framework for understanding these ‘electronic message faults.’ The interview with the troller makes it apparent that there are a number of similarities between the proposed anti-social personality disorder in DSM-V and flame trolling activities. An investigation into the application of the Criminal Procedure rules in United Kingdom finds a number of inconsistencies in the way the rules are followed, which it appears are causing injustices in the application of Internet trolling laws.

Full Text

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2013). The effect of deindividuation of the Internet Troller on Criminal Procedure implementation: An interview with a Hater. International Journal of Cyber Criminology 7(1), pp. 28-48. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-effect-of-de-inviduation-of-the-internet-troller-on-criminal-procedure-implementation.pdf

Scope and Limitations in the Government of Wales Act 2006 for Tackling Internet Abuses in the Form of ‘Flame Trolling’

Scope and Limitations in the Government of Wales Act 2006 for Tackling Internet Abuses in the Form of ‘Flame Trolling’

Jonathan Bishop

Introduction

Devolution has had a significant impact on the differences between the way legislation is constructed and implemented in the nations and regions of the British Isles that form part of the United Kingdom. It is known that the ever-increasing divergence of such legislation is leading to new legislative regimes that will mean that policies on talking ‘mis-behaviour’ will differ significantly over time.1 A search of the news archives of one of these nations in particular, Wales, including The Western Mail, South Wales Echo, South Wales Evening Post, found over 700 articles that could be linked to internet abuse. Of these articles, there were 36 instances of the Welsh Assembly being mentioned and none of these related to tackling Internet abuse. One of the few references to information technology specifically was when the then education Minister, Jane Davidson, was reported as saying that Welsh Government (WG)’s decision to spend £24m on IT equipment for schools over three years would ensure all pupils had a chance to develop skills needed. This clearly shows the lack of priority of tackling Internet abuse as distinct from other forms of offline bullying. In fact, it is known that its drive to ensure schools have effective anti-bullying policies affects the extent to which traditional forms of bullying occur at those schools in Wales.2 Indeed, it is argued that whilst clear evidence shows that school non-attendance is liked to cyberbullying, this is an ever-increasing problem that policymakers have not kept up with the ‘hardly standing still’ topic.

Full Text

References

Jonathan Bishop (2012). Scope and Limitations in the Government of Wales Act 2006 for Tackling Internet Abuses in the Form of ‘Flame Trolling’. Statute Law Review 33 (2), 207-216. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/scope-and-limitations-of-the-government-of-wales-act-2006-for-tackling-internet-abuses-in-the-form-of-flame-trolling.pdf

Tackling Internet abuse in Great Britain: Towards a framework for classifying severities of ‘flame trolling’

Tackling Internet abuse in Great Britain: Towards a framework for classifying severities of ‘flame trolling’

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

While trolling has existed as a term since the 1990s and as a reality even earlier there has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of the abusive kind – ‘flame trolling’. Mistakenly the media calls these flame trollers, ‘trolls’, when in fact there are more often than not ‘Snerts’ and ‘E-Vengers’. The justice system in Great Britain has taken a sporadic approach to dealing with flame trolling, and the wide range of legislation that has existed since the 1980s has no strategic method to assign its usage on the basis of the nature of the flame trolling as its use often depends on the whim of different police forces. This paper hopes to change this. After a brief presentation of the background of Internet trolling in Great Britain and in general a new framework is presented. This allows prosecutors to easily classify flame trolling based on the facts of the case and pick the appropriate level based on the severity.

Full Text

References

Jonathan Bishop (2012). Tackling Internet abuse in Great Britain: Towards a framework for classifying severities of ‘flame trolling’. The 11th International Conference on Security and Management (SAM’12), 16-19 July 2012, USA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/tackling-internet-abuse-in-great-britain-towards-a-framework-for-classifying-severities-of-flame-trolling.pdf

All’s WELL that Ends WELL: A Comparative Analysis of the Constitutional and Administrative Frameworks of Cyberspace and the United Kingdom

All’s WELL that Ends WELL: A Comparative Analysis of the Constitutional and Administrative Frameworks of Cyberspace and the United Kingdom

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Constitutional and Administrative Law is a core component of legal studies throughout the world, but to date little has been written about how this might exist on the Internet, which is like a world without frontiers. John Perry Barlow’s “Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace” served to start the debate about the legitimacy of nation-states to impose laws on such a virtual space. It has been argued that the nation-states won as there are now a significant number of laws regulating the Internet on national and international levels. It can however be seen that there are commonalities between the two entities. For example, there are commonalities in the way they function. There are also commonalities in the way civil rights exist, and the existence of civil remedies and law enforcement. These are all explored in the chapter, which also presents two concepts about the authority of the state in regulating behaviour in online communities. One of them, “sysop prerogative,” says that owners of website can do whatever they want so long as they have not had it taken away by law or given it away by contract. The second, ‘The Preece Gap’, says that there is a distance between the ideal usable and sociable website that the users want and that which the owners of the website provide in practice. Two other concepts are also introduced, “the Figallo effect” and the “Jimbo effect.” The former describes an online community where users use their actual identities and sysop prerogative is delegated to them. The latter describes those where sysop prerogative is exercised by one or more enforcers to control users who use pseudonyms. The chapter concludes that less anonymity and a more professionalised society are needed to bridge the gap between online and offline regulation of behavior.

Full Text

References

Jonathan Bishop (2011). All’s WELL that Ends WELL: A Comparative Analysis of the Constitutional and Administrative Frameworks of Cyberspace and the United Kingdom. In: Alfreda Dudley, James Braman and Giovanni Vincenti (Eds.) Investigating Cyber Law and Cyber Ethics: Issues, Impacts and Practices. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. (Pages 254-263) Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/alls-well-that-ends-well-a-comparative-analysis-of-the-constiturional-and-administrative-frameworks-of-cyberspace-and-the-united-kingdom.pdf

Tough on data misuse, tough on the causes of data misuse: A review of New Labour’s approach to information security and regulating the misuse of digital information (1997-2010)

Tough on data misuse, tough on the causes of data misuse: A review of New Labour’s approach to information security and regulating the misuse of digital information (1997-2010)

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

New Labour was a description of a particular approach to government of the British Labour Party, which was in power in the United Kingdom between 1997 and 2010. While this government initially envisaged an end to the social causes of misdemeanours, its actions led to a greater number of laws on the statute books creating thousands of statutory offences. A small number of these had direct effects on the number of computer related offences that were able to be prosecuted. This paper reviews these laws, and the role of legal systems in responding to the increasing numbers of misdemeanours that are occurring in computer environments for which New Labour’s approach of creating more statutory offences has not addressed.

Full Text

References

Jonathan Bishop (2010). Tough on data misuse, tough on the causes of data misuse: A review of New Labour’s approach to information security and regulating the misuse of digital information (1997-2010). International Review of Law, Computers & Technology 24(3), pp. 299-303. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/tough-on-data-misuse-tough-on-the-causes-of-data-misuse.pdf