Tag Archives: Criminal and Community Justice Research

Representations of ‘trolls’ in mass media communication: a review of media-texts and moral panics relating to ‘internet trolling’

Representations of ‘trolls’ in mass media communication: a review of media-texts and moral panics relating to ‘internet trolling’

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

There is a general trend amongst mass media organisations around the world towards concentration of the visual, written and audio packaging and of newspapers, websites and television as channels of information. These platforms are explored in detail in this paper in relation to the moral panics around ‘internet trolling’. This paper discusses the history of trolling in the context of mass media, specifically ‘classical trolling’ and ‘Anonymous trolling’. A review of different media headlines finds that whether or not a story is portrayed in newspapers, online, or on television, the media will use a variety of ways to convey their messages. In the case of ‘trolls’, they show a darker, sinister and transgressive side of cyberspace in the form of abuse and vitriol (i.e., Anonymous trolling). The paper concludes that future research should look in detail at the different character types of internet troller and how these affect the way so called ‘trolls’ are represented in the media and the effect this has on the attitude towards young internet users and trollers in general.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Representations of ‘trolls’ in mass media communication: A review of media-texts and moral panics relating to ‘internet trolling.’ International Journal of Web Based Communities 10(1), 7-24. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/representaitons-of-trolls-in-mass-media-communication.pdf

The Art of Trolling Law Enforcement: A Review and Model for implementing ‘flame trolling’ legislation enacted in Great Britain (1981-2012)

The Art of Trolling Law Enforcement: A Review and Model for implementing ‘flame trolling’ legislation enacted in Great Britain (1981-2012)

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

While trolling has existed as a term since the 1990s and as a reality even earlier there has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of the abusive kind – ‘flame trolling’. Mistakenly the media calls these flame trollers, ‘trolls’, when in fact there are more often than not ‘Snerts’ and ‘E-Vengers’. The justice system in Great Britain has taken a sporadic approach to dealing with flame trolling, and the wide range of legislation that has existed since the 1980s has no strategic method to assign its usage on the basis of the nature of the flame trolling as its use often depends on the whim of different police forces. This paper hopes to change this. After a brief presentation of the background of Internet trolling in Great Britain and in general a new framework is presented. This allows prosecutors to easily classify flame trolling based on the facts of the case and pick the appropriate level based on the severity.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2013). The Art of Trolling Law Enforcement: A Review and Model for implementing ‘flame trolling’ legislation enacted in Great Britain (1981-2012), International Review of Law, Computers and Technology 27(3), 301-318. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-art-of-trolling-law-enforcement-a-review-and-model-for-implementing-flame-trolling-legislation-enacted-in-great-britain-1981-2012.pdf

The effect of deindividuation of the Internet Troller on Criminal Procedure implementation: An interview with a Hater

The effect of deindividuation of the Internet Troller on Criminal Procedure implementation: An interview with a Hater

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Trolling has been one of the most talked about issue in relation to the internet in the second decade of the 21st century to date. Many people have spoken out against those who use the Internet to abuse others. It is clear that on their own, laws are not going to solve the problem of Internet abuse and data misuse, as being tough on crime needs to be matched with being tough on the causes of crime. This paper provides an in depth interview with an Internet troller and discussion of the findings of this to provide a general framework for understanding these ‘electronic message faults.’ The interview with the troller makes it apparent that there are a number of similarities between the proposed anti-social personality disorder in DSM-V and flame trolling activities. An investigation into the application of the Criminal Procedure rules in United Kingdom finds a number of inconsistencies in the way the rules are followed, which it appears are causing injustices in the application of Internet trolling laws.

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Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2013). The effect of deindividuation of the Internet Troller on Criminal Procedure implementation: An interview with a Hater. International Journal of Cyber Criminology 7(1), pp. 28-48. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-effect-of-de-inviduation-of-the-internet-troller-on-criminal-procedure-implementation.pdf

Scope and Limitations in the Government of Wales Act 2006 for Tackling Internet Abuses in the Form of ‘Flame Trolling’

Scope and Limitations in the Government of Wales Act 2006 for Tackling Internet Abuses in the Form of ‘Flame Trolling’

Jonathan Bishop

Introduction

Devolution has had a significant impact on the differences between the way legislation is constructed and implemented in the nations and regions of the British Isles that form part of the United Kingdom. It is known that the ever-increasing divergence of such legislation is leading to new legislative regimes that will mean that policies on talking ‘mis-behaviour’ will differ significantly over time.1 A search of the news archives of one of these nations in particular, Wales, including The Western Mail, South Wales Echo, South Wales Evening Post, found over 700 articles that could be linked to internet abuse. Of these articles, there were 36 instances of the Welsh Assembly being mentioned and none of these related to tackling Internet abuse. One of the few references to information technology specifically was when the then education Minister, Jane Davidson, was reported as saying that Welsh Government (WG)’s decision to spend £24m on IT equipment for schools over three years would ensure all pupils had a chance to develop skills needed. This clearly shows the lack of priority of tackling Internet abuse as distinct from other forms of offline bullying. In fact, it is known that its drive to ensure schools have effective anti-bullying policies affects the extent to which traditional forms of bullying occur at those schools in Wales.2 Indeed, it is argued that whilst clear evidence shows that school non-attendance is liked to cyberbullying, this is an ever-increasing problem that policymakers have not kept up with the ‘hardly standing still’ topic.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2012). Scope and Limitations in the Government of Wales Act 2006 for Tackling Internet Abuses in the Form of ‘Flame Trolling’. Statute Law Review 33 (2), 207-216. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/scope-and-limitations-of-the-government-of-wales-act-2006-for-tackling-internet-abuses-in-the-form-of-flame-trolling.pdf

Lessons from The Emotivate Project for Increasing Take-up of Big Society and Responsible Capitalism Initiatives

Lessons from The Emotivate Project for Increasing Take-up of Big Society and Responsible Capitalism Initiatives

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This chapter presents a case study of The Emotivate Project and the role it played in the didactic education of 11 school-age children from the former coalfields communities of Llantwit Fardre and Pontypridd in Wales in the United Kingdom through blended learning (bLearning) and blended twinning (bTwinning). The chapter shows how the Emotivate Projects provides evidence to show that UK Government’s Big Society policy depends, not on additional government intervention beyond finance, but partnerships on the basis of responsible capitalism and community co-operativism, involving all three market sectors – people, private and public. By using the capital and ‘payment in kind’ of responsible capitalist firms, in addition to charitable funding and government grants means partnerships across sectors can provide a significant degree of match funding for Big Society projects. The chapter recommends that the private sector get involved in increasing efficiency in Big Society run on a people sector basis, through taking advantage of outsourcing. This enabled them to fulfil their social or moral causes through didactic activism with better value for money due to efficiency savings in overhead costs.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2012). Lessons from The Emotivate Project for Increasing Take-up of Big Society and Responsible Capitalism Initiatives. In: P.M. Pumilia-Gnarini, E, Favaron, E. Pacetti, J. Bishop, L, Guerra (Eds.) Didactic Strategies and Technologies for Education Incorporating Advancements. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/lessons-from-the-emotivate-project-for-increasing-take-up-of-big-society-and-responsible-capitalism-initiatives.pdf

Taming the Chatroom Bob: The role of brain-computer interfaces that manipulate prefrontal cortex optimization  for increasing participation of victims of traumatic sex and other abuse online

Taming the Chatroom Bob: The role of brain-computer interfaces that manipulate prefrontal cortex optimization  for increasing participation of victims of traumatic sex and other abuse online

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Chatroom Bobs, which derived from the concept of ‘Uncle Bob’ being a name for a less than responsible family man, are characterised by being online community users driven by seeking out satisfaction for their ‘urgeances’ (or biological drives). Some of these are akin to the ‘office loser’ who tries to impress others but is despised, others have more ulterior motives for sexual satisfaction. This paper presents an intervention – called MEDIAT – which uses TAGTeach to retrain people who are sexually damaged by society and demonstrate impairment in how they interact with others. The paper presents an equation for measuring such ‘social orientation impairment’ as a reflection of its relationship to serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex as a result of differences in ‘Neuro-response plasticity’. The paper concludes that by using MEDIAT to reverse dopaminergic-serotonergic asynchronicity caused by traumatic experience can lead to increased constructive participation in online and other environments.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2012). Taming the Chatroom Bob: The role of brain-computer interfaces that manipulate prefrontal cortex optimization for increasing participation of victims of traumatic sex and other abuse online. In: 13th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (BIOCOMP’12), 16-19 July 2012, USA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/taming-the-chatroom-bob-the-role-of-brain-computer-interfaces-that-manipulate-prefrontal-cortex-optimization-for-increasing-participation-of-victims-of-traumatic-sex-and-other-abuse-online.pdf

Tackling Internet abuse in Great Britain: Towards a framework for classifying severities of ‘flame trolling’

Tackling Internet abuse in Great Britain: Towards a framework for classifying severities of ‘flame trolling’

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

While trolling has existed as a term since the 1990s and as a reality even earlier there has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of the abusive kind – ‘flame trolling’. Mistakenly the media calls these flame trollers, ‘trolls’, when in fact there are more often than not ‘Snerts’ and ‘E-Vengers’. The justice system in Great Britain has taken a sporadic approach to dealing with flame trolling, and the wide range of legislation that has existed since the 1980s has no strategic method to assign its usage on the basis of the nature of the flame trolling as its use often depends on the whim of different police forces. This paper hopes to change this. After a brief presentation of the background of Internet trolling in Great Britain and in general a new framework is presented. This allows prosecutors to easily classify flame trolling based on the facts of the case and pick the appropriate level based on the severity.

Full Text

References

Jonathan Bishop (2012). Tackling Internet abuse in Great Britain: Towards a framework for classifying severities of ‘flame trolling’. The 11th International Conference on Security and Management (SAM’12), 16-19 July 2012, USA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/tackling-internet-abuse-in-great-britain-towards-a-framework-for-classifying-severities-of-flame-trolling.pdf

Transforming Lurkers into Posters: The role of the Participation Continuum

Transforming Lurkers into Posters: The role of the Participation Continuum

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Increasing participation has long been seen as a way additional to new technology of helping online communities to grow. Online community managers may well advertise their website on other service platforms, but with up 90% of the visitors to their site being non-participants, referred to as lurkers, they could do no better than improving their website to tackle lurker fears. This paper presents the ‘participation continuum’ for understanding why some users are posters, and do participate, and why others are lurkers, and do not contribute. The paper considers lurkers as victims of the failures of those manage online communities to encourage involvement from them by combating the fears they have. The main fears of lurkers are explored and solutions for overcoming them explained and a study is presented using the participation continuum, which confirms the hypothesis of lurkers being similar to those with social phobia.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2011). Transforming Lurkers into Posters: The role of the Participation Continuum. In: In: V. Grout, R. Picking & D. Oram (Eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Internet Technologies and Applications (ITA11), 6 September 2011, Wrexham, UK: University of Wales Press. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/transforming-lurkers-into-posters-the-role-of-the-participation-continuum.pdf

Tough on data misuse, tough on the causes of data misuse: A review of New Labour’s approach to information security and regulating the misuse of digital information (1997-2010)

Tough on data misuse, tough on the causes of data misuse: A review of New Labour’s approach to information security and regulating the misuse of digital information (1997-2010)

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

New Labour was a description of a particular approach to government of the British Labour Party, which was in power in the United Kingdom between 1997 and 2010. While this government initially envisaged an end to the social causes of misdemeanours, its actions led to a greater number of laws on the statute books creating thousands of statutory offences. A small number of these had direct effects on the number of computer related offences that were able to be prosecuted. This paper reviews these laws, and the role of legal systems in responding to the increasing numbers of misdemeanours that are occurring in computer environments for which New Labour’s approach of creating more statutory offences has not addressed.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2010). Tough on data misuse, tough on the causes of data misuse: A review of New Labour’s approach to information security and regulating the misuse of digital information (1997-2010). International Review of Law, Computers & Technology 24(3), pp. 299-303. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/tough-on-data-misuse-tough-on-the-causes-of-data-misuse.pdf