Category Archives: Book Chapters

Overcoming the Legal Challenges of News Reporting: A Case Study of a Start-Up News Corporation

Overcoming the Legal Challenges of News Reporting: A Case Study of a Start-Up News Corporation

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

When one thinks of barriers to setting up a news corporation, one might think in terms of the costs of machinery and staffing. This case study of a start-up news corporation called Crocels News shows that the biggest cost can be in resolving legal disputes, most significantly from news articles scrutinising public bodies and their staff. This chapter investigates the difficulties faced by Crocels News in providing news content. By considering the legal correspondence received, the chapter provides insights into some of the problems all news services are likely to experience if they do not have access to the huge legal budgets of the established news corporations. The findings are particularly worrying for emerging forms of news reporting, such as citizen journalism. The chapter therefore proposes changes in statute so that case law that protects free speech is more easily enforced.

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2017). Overcoming the Legal Challenges of News Reporting: A Case Study of a Start-Up News Corporation. In N. Mhiripiri, & T. Chari (Eds.), Media Law, Ethics, and Policy in the Digital Age (pp. 146-163). Hershey, PA: IGI

Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling

Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Internet trolling describes the posting of any content on the Internet which is provocative or offensive, which is different from the original meaning online in the 1990s, referring to the posting of messages for humourous effect. Those systems operators (sysops) who run online communities are being targeted because of abuse posted on their platforms. Political discussion groups are some of the most prone to trolling, whether consensual or unwanted. Many such websites ara open for anyone to join, meaning when some members post messages they know are offensive but legal, others might find grossly offensive, meaning these messages could be illegal. This paper develops a questionnaire called the This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale (TIWWCHNT-20), which aims to help sysops better plan the development of online communities to take account of different users’ capacity to be offended, and for users to self-assess whether they will be suited to an online community. The scale is discussed in relation to different Internet posting techniques where different users will act differently.

Full Text

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2017). Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling. In Y. Ibrahim (Ed.), Politics, Protest, and Empowerment in Digital Spaces (pp. 153-177). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Available at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/developing-and-validating-tiwwchnt-20-scale.pdf

Exploring the Counting of Ballot Papers Using “Delegated Transferable Vote”: Implications for Local and National Elections in the United Kingdom

Exploring the Counting of Ballot Papers Using “Delegated Transferable Vote”: Implications for Local and National Elections in the United Kingdom

Jonathan Bishop and Mark Beech

Abstract

Delegated transferable voting (DTV) refers to an approach to counting votes in elections that extends non-preferential voting systems like First Past The Post (FPTP) to include a transferable element similar to Single Transferable Voting (STV) but instead of voters indicating who they wish their votes to go to on an individual level they entrust that decision in the candidate they vote for, who could be from a small political party that might otherwise be deemed a “wasted vote” under first-past-the-post systems where the candidate they least want could win by having the most votes but still have less than 50% of the popular vote. This chapter discusses how DTV might work in practice through an auto-ethnographic approach in which the authors play an active part in elections in order to test the approach. The elections contested in the UK included to local council level in the Pontypridd area and national elections to the UK Parliament and Welsh Assembly. The potential impact of DTV on these election and method of campaigning used at some of these elections might have had on the voting outcome are discussed.

Full Text

Citation

Jonathan Bishop & Mark Beech (2017). Exploring the Counting of Ballot Papers Using “Delegated Transferable Vote”: Implications for Local and National Elections in the United Kingdom. In Y. Ibrahim (Ed.), Politics, Protest, and Empowerment in Digital Spaces (pp. 227-243). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Available online: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/counting-ballot-papers-using-dtv.pdf

Devising Parametric User Models for Processing and Analysing Social Media Data to Influence User Behaviour: Using Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Social Media Data

Devising Parametric User Models for Processing and Analysing Social Media Data to Influence User Behaviour: Using Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Social Media Data

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Academia is often plagued with those who define themselves by whether they are “quantitative” or “qualitative.” This chapter contests that when it comes to researching social media the two are inseparable in datafying user generated content. Posts on Twitter for instance have a textual element to the narratives that could be considered qualitative, but also quantitative criteria can be applied. Interviewing approaches can allow for the exploration of discourses to produce new theories, which may then rely of those approaches commonly thought of as quantitative. This chapter tests out a variety of different approaches to show how it is only through using all approaches available can social media be triangulated to produce accurate modelling of user behaviour.

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2017). Devising Parametric User Models for Processing and Analysing Social Media Data to Influence User Behaviour: Using Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Social Media Data. In: S. Hai-Jew (Ed.) Social Media Data Extraction and Content Analysis (pp. 1-41). IGI Global, Hershey, PA.

Chrono-Spatial Intelligence in Global Systems Science and Social Media: Predictions for Proactive Political Decision Making

Chrono-Spatial Intelligence in Global Systems Science and Social Media: Predictions for Proactive Political Decision Making

Niki Lambropoulos, Habib M. Fardoun & Daniyal M. Alghazzawi

Abstract

This paper discusses the advantage of social media in providing continuous non-liner, non-redundant information, taking advantage Global Systems Science (GSS) research tools and techniques. GSS matrix can indicate series of fortunate and unfortunate events that are not isolated but rather connected in time and space, sometimes appearing as events rising from serendipity. This proposition suggests that such hidden connections can be a new form of multiple intelligence named Chrono-Spatial Intelligence This is occurring by apparent or hidden connections between human or machine generated data and the time these occur so to investigate their connecting nodes, also linked to political decision making and learning. Although major prediction frameworks and systems exist as part of the GSS, it seems they cannot not successfully indicate or predict major or massive activities with global impact following the latest global events. Social media, semantic associations, local security camera data and other information have not been connected and analysed enough to predict undesirable events. Therefore, the main aim of this proposition is the identification, analysis and understanding connections between real-time political events for time-space investigation as Chrono-Spatial Intelligence. A second aim is to identify tools, methodologies and evaluation techniques to facilitate shedding light in Chrono-Spatial Intelligence understanding, analysis and impact related to political decision making, as for example quality in education. Future research suggests the proposition implementation.

Citation

Niki Lambropoulos, Habib M. Fardoun & Daniyal M. Alghazzawi (2016). Chrono-Spatial Intelligence in Global Systems Science and Social Media: Predictions for Proactive Political Decision Making. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (9742), pp 201-208. Available at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/chrono-spatial-intelligence-in-global-systems-science-and-social-media.pdf

The Need for Separating University Management and Administration from Service Delivery: Reviewing Disability Policy at Four HEIs in Wales

The Need for Separating University Management and Administration from Service Delivery: Reviewing Disability Policy at Four HEIs in Wales

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This chapter looks at how suitable the current equality policies of Wales’s universities are to compete in the current economic climate and the changes needed to deliver best value to people with disabilities and all other taxpayers. The chapter makes the finding that universities are too bloated, by carrying out functions, which in Wales could be better handled by the public sector that is under direct control of the Welsh Government’s education minister. This would involve learning from how the telecoms and energy companies work UK wide, so that HEFCfW becomes an infrastructure provider, Estyn would become responsible for ensuring the equality of access to higher education and ensuring the standards of university education. Universities would thus consist mainly of teaching and research staff, optimising how they use the infrastructure to attract the most students to their degrees, which are homogenised. The chapter makes clear, however, that whilst this policy would likely work in Wales, it would be unlikely to in England, perhaps allowing “clear red water” between governments.

Full Text

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2016). The Need for Separating University Management and Administration from Service Delivery: Reviewing Disability Policy at Four HEIs in Wales. In: Nwachukwu Prince Ololube (Ed.) Handbook of Research on Organizational Justice and Culture in Higher Education Institutions. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. (pages 365-382). Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/reviewing-disability-policy-at-four-hei-in-wales.pdf

Increasing The Economic Sustainability Of Online Communities: An Empirical Investigation

Increasing The Economic Sustainability Of Online Communities: An Empirical Investigation

Jonathan Bishop

Citations

Jonathan Bishop (2012). Increasing The Economic Sustainability Of Online Communities: An Empirical Investigation. M.O. Parker and A.D. Petrov (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Sociology Research. Nova Science Publishers. New York, NY. (pages 667-674)
Jonathan Bishop (2009). Increasing The Economic Sustainability Of Online Communities: An Empirical Investigation. Mildred F. Hindsworth and Trevor B. Lang (Eds.) Community Participation and Empowerment. Nova Science Publishers. New York, NY. (pages 349-362)

Internet Trolling and Other Cyberlaw Issues in the UK and the International Arena

Internet Trolling and Other Cyberlaw Issues in the UK and the International Arena

Jonathan Bishop

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2013). Internet Trolling and Other Cyberlaw Issues in the UK and the International Arena. In: D.H. Goldhush, T.F. Claypoole; J.K. Sherwood; C. Bal; J. Bishop (Eds.) Understanding Developments in Cyberspace Law. Aspatore Books: Boston, MA.

Trolling for the Lulz?: Using Media Theory to Understand Transgressive Humour and Other Internet Trolling in Online Communities

Trolling for the Lulz?: Using Media Theory to Understand Transgressive Humour and Other Internet Trolling in Online Communities

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Internet trolling as a term has changed in meaning since it first entered mainstream use on the Internet in the 1990s. In the 2010s, it has come to refer to the posting of provocative or offensive messages on the Internet to harm others. This change in usage of the term opens up new challenges for understanding the phenomenon, especially as some are still resistant to taking it beyond its original meaning. This chapter tries to distinguish the 1990s kind from the 2010s kind by referring to the former as classical trolling and the latter as anonymous trolling. Taking part in the former is considered to be “trolling for the Lolz” (i.e. positive) and the second to mean “trolling for the Lulz” (i.e. negative). Through using document and genre analysis, this chapter finds that there are common ways in which anonymous trolling manifests differently on different platforms. The chapter concludes by presenting a model for understanding which genres of online community are at risk for particular types of trolling.

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Trolling for the Lulz?: Using Media Theory to Understand Transgressive Humour and Other Internet Trolling in Online Communities. In: Jonathan Bishop (Ed.) Transforming Politics and Policy in the Digital Age. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. (pages 155-172). Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/trolling-for-the-lulz-using-media-theory-to-understand-transgressive-humour-and-other-internet-trolling-in-online-communities.pdf

The Role of Geo-Demographic Big Data for Assessing the Effectiveness of Crowd-Funded Software Projects: A Case Example of “QPress”

The Role of Geo-Demographic Big Data for Assessing the Effectiveness of Crowd-Funded Software Projects: A Case Example of “QPress”

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The current phenomenon of Big Data – the use of datasets that are too big for traditional business analysis tools used in industry – is driving a shift in how social and economic problems are understood and analysed. This chapter explores the role Big Data can play in analysing the effectiveness of crowd-funding projects, using the data from such a project, which aimed to fund the development of a software plug-in called ‘QPress’. Data analysed included the website metrics of impressions, clicks and average position, which were found to be significantly connected with geographical factors using an ANOVA. These were combined with other country data to perform t-tests in order to form a geo-demographic understanding of those who are displayed advertisements inviting participation in crowd-funding. The chapter concludes that there are a number of interacting variables and that for Big Data studies to be effective, their amalgamation with other data sources, including linked data, is essential to providing an overall picture of the social phenomenon being studied.

Full Text

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2015). The Role of Geo-Demographic Big Data for Assessing the Effectiveness of Crowd-Funded Software Projects: A Case Example of “QPress.” In B. Bozkaya, & V. Singh (Eds.) Geo-Intelligence and Visualization through Big Data Trends (pp. 94-120). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-role-of-geo-demographic-big-data-for-assessing-the-effectiveness-of-crowd-funded-software-projects-a-case-example-of-qpress.pdf