Category Archives: Publications

Overcoming the Legal Challenges of News Reporting: A Case Study of a Start-Up News Corporation

Overcoming the Legal Challenges of News Reporting: A Case Study of a Start-Up News Corporation

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

When one thinks of barriers to setting up a news corporation, one might think in terms of the costs of machinery and staffing. This case study of a start-up news corporation called Crocels News shows that the biggest cost can be in resolving legal disputes, most significantly from news articles scrutinising public bodies and their staff. This chapter investigates the difficulties faced by Crocels News in providing news content. By considering the legal correspondence received, the chapter provides insights into some of the problems all news services are likely to experience if they do not have access to the huge legal budgets of the established news corporations. The findings are particularly worrying for emerging forms of news reporting, such as citizen journalism. The chapter therefore proposes changes in statute so that case law that protects free speech is more easily enforced.

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2017). Overcoming the Legal Challenges of News Reporting: A Case Study of a Start-Up News Corporation. In N. Mhiripiri, & T. Chari (Eds.), Media Law, Ethics, and Policy in the Digital Age (pp. 146-163). Hershey, PA: IGI

Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling

Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Internet trolling describes the posting of any content on the Internet which is provocative or offensive, which is different from the original meaning online in the 1990s, referring to the posting of messages for humourous effect. Those systems operators (sysops) who run online communities are being targeted because of abuse posted on their platforms. Political discussion groups are some of the most prone to trolling, whether consensual or unwanted. Many such websites ara open for anyone to join, meaning when some members post messages they know are offensive but legal, others might find grossly offensive, meaning these messages could be illegal. This paper develops a questionnaire called the This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale (TIWWCHNT-20), which aims to help sysops better plan the development of online communities to take account of different users’ capacity to be offended, and for users to self-assess whether they will be suited to an online community. The scale is discussed in relation to different Internet posting techniques where different users will act differently.

Full Text

Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2017). Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling. In Y. Ibrahim (Ed.), Politics, Protest, and Empowerment in Digital Spaces (pp. 153-177). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Available at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/developing-and-validating-tiwwchnt-20-scale.pdf

The Impacts of Alcohol on E-Dating Activity: Increases in Flame Trolling Corresponds with Higher Alcohol Consumption

The Impacts of Alcohol on E-Dating Activity: Increases in Flame Trolling Corresponds with Higher Alcohol Consumption

Jason Barratt and Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The impact of alcohol on Internet use is relatively unexplored. This chapter presents the results of a study conducted over a period of 1 year, which investigated whether persons who stated on their e-dating profile that they drank alcohol were more or less likely to contact another person. The study found that increased consumption of alcohol resulted in a person posting more flames (i.e. abusive posts) to their target. No such difference existed in terms of whether a person drank alcohol in relation to whether they had a low education, spoke more about themselves, their target, or whether they posted kudos to their targets. The chapter concludes that further research is needed to uncover the effects of alcohol on participation in social networking services, so that young people, like Liam Stacey and Isabella Sorley are not unfairly targeted for Internet trolling.

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Reference

Jason Barratt and Jonathan Bishop (2015). The Impacts of Alcohol on E-Dating Activity: Increases in Flame Trolling Corresponds with Higher Alcohol Consumption. In J. Bishop (Ed.), Psychological and Social Implications Surrounding Internet and Gaming Addiction (pp. 186-197). IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-impacts-of-alcohol-on-e-dating-activity.pdf

The Thin-Blue Web: Police Crime Records of Internet Trolling Show Chivalrous Attitudes That Can Be Resolved through Transfer of Powers

The Thin-Blue Web: Police Crime Records of Internet Trolling Show Chivalrous Attitudes That Can Be Resolved through Transfer of Powers

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This chapter using an empirical data-driven approach to investigate crime recording logs of South Wales Police relating to Internet trolling by and towards different sexes. The chapter finds more favourable attitudes towards women as victims in even the most trivial of cases. It finds male victims of trolling are only treated as victims when a form of unwanted face-to-face encounter is needed for action. The chapter shows transferring police powers to local authorities, can cut the cost of community policing by 50% across the board and eliminate sexist attitudes also. The chapter finds that the way social media platforms are exercising ‘sysop prerogative’ where they have no right to – such as not passing over account information on alleged defamers – puts a huge burden on police resources. Using local authorities, which have many of the same powers as the police and indeed more, can resolve problems without the need to criminalise offenders.

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Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2015). The Thin-Blue Web: Police Crime Records of Internet Trolling Show Chivalrous Attitudes That Can Be Resolved through Transfer of Powers. In P. Thomas, M. Srihari, & S. Kaur (Eds.) Handbook of Research on Cultural and Economic Impacts of the Information Society (pp. 67-91), IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-thin-blue-web-police-crime-records-of-internet-trolling-show-chivalrous-attitudes-that-can-be-resolved-through-transfer-of-powers.pdf

Using “On-the-Fly Corpus Linguistics” to Systematically Derive Word Definitions Using Inductive Abstraction and Reductionist Correlation Analysis: Considering Seductive and Gratifying Properties of Computer Jargon

Using “On-the-Fly Corpus Linguistics” to Systematically Derive Word Definitions Using Inductive Abstraction and Reductionist Correlation Analysis: Considering Seductive and Gratifying Properties of Computer Jargon

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Computer jargon is something that can either unite people, or draw them apart. This chapter looks at definitions of the terms, ‘trolling,’ ‘flame,’ ‘flame-war’ and ‘lurking,’ as presented in specialist dictionaries, newspapers and through a survey of laypersons. The aim of the chapter was to see whether it was possible to objectively define terms using a quantitative analysis of qualitative data. The study finds that objectively determining a definition of a term requires a bigger dataset than is used for qualitative studies. It further notes that whilst there is a lot in common with expert definitions, the problem with drawing definitions from others is that whilst it might produce objective definitions they might not be accurate ones.

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Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2015). On-the-Fly Corpus Linguistics” to Systematically Derive Word Definitions Using Inductive Abstraction and Reductionist Correlation Analysis: Considering Seductive and Gratifying Properties of Computer Jargon. In: Jonathan Bishop (Ed.) Psychological and Social Implications Surrounding Internet and Gaming Addiction. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/using-on-the-fly-corpus-linguistics-to-systematically-derive-word-definitions-using-inductive-abstraction-and-reducationist-correlation-analysis.pdf

The Need for a Dualist Application of Public and Private Law in Great Britain Following the Use of “Flame Trolling” During the 2011 UK Riots: A Review and Model

The Need for a Dualist Application of Public and Private  Law in Great Britain Following  the Use of “Flame Trolling”  During the 2011 UK Riots: A Review and Model

Mugabi Ivan and Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Since time immemorial, the legal systems of Great Britain have often been spoken of highly as pinnacles of democracy. However, the split between criminal law and tort law have often caused problems where the police has often focused on the prosecution of people in poverty and where only the wealthy can afford to use the system. This chapter discusses the extent and limitations of existing measures to tackle computer-related crime, particularly with regards to the abusive kind of Internet Trolling, namely “flame trolling.” The chapter recommends further research to establish whether it should be the case that in a society based on dualism that criminal and civil cases should be held at the same time, and that in both instances those being accused of an offence or tort should be allowed to bring a counter-claim. It is discussed that in such a system the cases that would be brought are where there is a clear victim who had no part in the offence against them, such as murder, rape, theft and burglary, which are usually carefully planned and orchestrated acts.

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Reference

Ivan Mugabi and Jonathan Bishop (2015). The Need for a Dualist  Application of Public and Private  Law in Great Britain Following  the Use of “Flame Trolling”  During the 2011 UK Riots: A Review and Model. In: Maurice Dawson & Marwan Omar (Eds.).  New Threats and  Countermeasures in  Digital Crime and Cyber  Terrorism. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-need-for-a-dualism-application-of-public-and-private-law-in-great-britain-following-the-use-of-flame-trolling-during-the-2011-uk-riots.pdf

Dealing with Internet Trolling in Political Online Communities: Towards the This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale

Dealing with Internet Trolling in Political Online Communities: Towards the This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Internet trolling has become a popularly used term to describe the posting of any content on the Internet which is provocative or offensive. This is different from the original meaning online in the 1990s, which referred to the posting of provocative messages for humourous effect. Those systems operators (sysops) who run online communities are finding they are being targeted because of abuse posted on their platforms. Political discussion groups are some of the most prone to trolling, whether consensual or unwanted. Many such websites ara open for anyone to join, meaning when some members post messages they know are offensive but legal, others might find grossly offensive, meaning these messages could be illegal. This paper develops a questionnaire called the This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale (TIWWCHNT-20), which aims to help sysops better plan the development of online communities to take account of different users’ capacity to be offended, and for users to self-assess whether they will be suited to an online community. The scale is discussed in relation to different Internet posting techniques where different users will act differently.

Full Text

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Dealing with Internet Trolling in Political Online Communities: Towards the This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale. International Journal of E-Politics 5(4), 1-20. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/dealing-with-internet-trolling-in-political-online-communities-towards-the-this-is-why-we-cant-have-nice-things-scale.pdf

The pit head baths are now an Internet café: The role of technology in transforming audience, institutions and power structures among women in Wales

The pit head baths are now an Internet café: The role of technology in transforming audience, institutions and power structures among women in Wales

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The coal-fields communities in Wales were once one of the most relatively prosperous places to live in the British Isles. Many people flocked to Wales in search of a new life and opportunities for their family. Coal became known as ‘Black Gold’ and the industrialized coal-fields became centres of productivity. Media use in Welsh households has generally been controlled by dominating men who saw and in many cases still see themselves as the ‘heads of the household.’ Such control over the media consumption of women was not out of place in the UK as a whole, where men have assumed a place as a de facto media institution who force choices of what to watch on their households. This paper presents a longitudinal study of three women in Wales conducted between 2000 and 2013 that shows how the media consumption and audience styles have changed over time so that power structures from both men and traditional media institutions has all but eroded.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2014). The pit head baths are now an Internet café: The role of technology in transforming audience, institutions and power structures among women in Wales. In: J. Bishop (Ed.) Transforming Politics and Policy in the Digital Age. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-pit-head-baths-are-now-an-internet-cafe-women-in-wales.pdf

Internet Trolling and the 2011 UK Riots: The Need for a Dualist Reform of the Constitutional, Administrative and Security Frameworks in Great Britain

Internet Trolling and the 2011 UK Riots: The Need for a Dualist Reform of the Constitutional, Administrative and Security Frameworks in Great Britain

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This article proposes the need for ‘dualism’ in the legal system, where civil and criminal offences are considered at the same time, and where both the person complaining and the person responding are on trial at the same time. Considered is how reforming the police and judiciary, such as by replacing the police with legal aid solicitors and giving many of their other powers to the National Crime Agency could improve outcomes for all. The perils of the current system, which treats the accused as criminals until proven not guilty, are critiqued, and suggestions for replacing this process with courts of law that treat complainant and respondent equally are made. The article discusses how such a system based on dualism might have operated during the August 2011 UK riots, where the situation had such a dramatic effect on how the social networking aspects, such as ‘Internet trolling’, affected it.

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Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Internet Trolling and the 2011 UK Riots: The Need for a Dualist Reform of the Constitutional, Administrative and Security Frameworks in Great Britain. European Journal of Law Reform 16(1), pp. 154-167. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-need-for-a-dualism-application-of-public-and-private-law-in-great-britain-following-the-use-of-flame-trolling-during-the-2011-uk-riots.pdf

My Click is My Bond: The Role of Contracts, Social Proof, and Gamification for Sysops to Reduce Pseudo-Activism and Internet Trolling

My Click is My Bond: The Role of Contracts, Social Proof, and Gamification for Sysops to Reduce Pseudo-Activism and Internet Trolling

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The growth in Internet use is not only placing pressure on service providers to maintain adequate bandwidth but also the people who run the Websites that operate through them. Called systems operators, or sysops, these people face a number of different obligations arising out of the use of their computermediated communication platforms. Most notable are contracts, which nearly all Websites have, and in the case of e-commerce sites in the European Union, there are contractual terms they must have. This chapter sets out to investigate how the role contract law can both help and hinder sysops and their users. Sysop powers are limited by sysop prerogative, which is everything they can do which has not been taken away by statute or given away by contract. The chapter finds that there are a number of special considerations for sysops in how they use contracts in order that they are not open to obligations through disabled or vulnerable users being abused by others.

Full Text

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). My Click is My Bond: The Role of Contracts, Social Proof, and Gamification for Sysops to Reduce Pseudo-Activism and Internet Trolling. In: Jonathan Bishop (Ed.) Gamification for Human Factors Integration: Social, Educational and Psychological Issues. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/my-click-is-my-bond-contracts-social-proof-gamificaiton.pdf