Category Archives: Polnetics Digest

Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling

Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Internet trolling describes the posting of any content on the Internet which is provocative or offensive, which is different from the original meaning online in the 1990s, referring to the posting of messages for humourous effect. Those systems operators (sysops) who run online communities are being targeted because of abuse posted on their platforms. Political discussion groups are some of the most prone to trolling, whether consensual or unwanted. Many such websites ara open for anyone to join, meaning when some members post messages they know are offensive but legal, others might find grossly offensive, meaning these messages could be illegal. This paper develops a questionnaire called the This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale (TIWWCHNT-20), which aims to help sysops better plan the development of online communities to take account of different users’ capacity to be offended, and for users to self-assess whether they will be suited to an online community. The scale is discussed in relation to different Internet posting techniques where different users will act differently.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2017). Developing and Validating the “This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things Scale”: Optimising Political Online Communities for Internet Trolling. In Y. Ibrahim (Ed.), Politics, Protest, and Empowerment in Digital Spaces (pp. 153-177). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Available at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/developing-and-validating-tiwwchnt-20-scale.pdf

Exploring the Counting of Ballot Papers Using “Delegated Transferable Vote”: Implications for Local and National Elections in the United Kingdom

Exploring the Counting of Ballot Papers Using “Delegated Transferable Vote”: Implications for Local and National Elections in the United Kingdom

Jonathan Bishop and Mark Beech

Abstract

Delegated transferable voting (DTV) refers to an approach to counting votes in elections that extends non-preferential voting systems like First Past The Post (FPTP) to include a transferable element similar to Single Transferable Voting (STV) but instead of voters indicating who they wish their votes to go to on an individual level they entrust that decision in the candidate they vote for, who could be from a small political party that might otherwise be deemed a “wasted vote” under first-past-the-post systems where the candidate they least want could win by having the most votes but still have less than 50% of the popular vote. This chapter discusses how DTV might work in practice through an auto-ethnographic approach in which the authors play an active part in elections in order to test the approach. The elections contested in the UK included to local council level in the Pontypridd area and national elections to the UK Parliament and Welsh Assembly. The potential impact of DTV on these election and method of campaigning used at some of these elections might have had on the voting outcome are discussed.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop & Mark Beech (2017). Exploring the Counting of Ballot Papers Using “Delegated Transferable Vote”: Implications for Local and National Elections in the United Kingdom. In Y. Ibrahim (Ed.), Politics, Protest, and Empowerment in Digital Spaces (pp. 227-243). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Available online: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/counting-ballot-papers-using-dtv.pdf

Embodying Trust in the Electoral System: The role of Delegated Transferable Voting for increasing voter choice and representation of small political parties in the digital age

Embodying Trust in the Electoral System: The role of Delegated Transferable Voting for increasing voter choice and representation of small political parties in the digital age

Jonathan Bishop and Mark Beech

Abstract

This paper proposes a new method for distributing votes in democratic elections in such a way that allows for the public to put their trust in independent candidates or those from small political parties. Using the case of a party founded by the authors called The Pluralist Party the paper presents primary data to evaluate the effectiveness of the method – called delegated transferable voting (DTV). Using an auto-ethnographical empirical study in which one of the authors plays a significant role as anthropologist, the paper finds that DTV is more likely to lead to the election of independent candidates over party political ones. Pluralism advocates the election of those who are independent of political party whips in order to best represent the people. The election of independent candidates or small parties is a model of pluralism that can achieve this. The empirical study, through investigating the campaigning methods used by The Pluralist Party, shows that putting effort into an election – whether money, materials or labour and however funded – can improve outcomes for political parties. Making use of official government data in addition to the collected data showed that a higher number of votes for the Pluralist Party was associated with a higher education level, more rooms in a household, a lower number of people not in education, employment or training, and a lower ‘knol,’ which is a unit for measuring brain activity.

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Jonathan Bishop and Mark Beech (2016). Embodying Trust in the Electoral System: The Role of Delegated Transferable Voting for Increasing Voter Choice and Representation of Small Political Parties in the Digital Age. International Journal of E-Politics (IJEP), 7(2), 37-50. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/embodying-trust-in-the-electoral-system-role-of-delegated-transferable-voting.pdf

Conceptualising Network Politics following the Arab Spring: An African Perspective

Conceptualising Network Politics following the Arab Spring: An African Perspective

Ashu M.G. Solo and Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Network politics is examined in the context of the Arab Spring. Network politics refers to politics and networks. These networks include the Internet, private networks, cellular networks, telephone networks, radio networks, television networks, etc. Network politics includes the applications of networks to enable one or more individuals or organizations to engage in political communication. Furthermore, network politics includes government regulation of networks. Finally, network politics includes the accompanying issues that arise when networks are used for political communication or when there is government regulation of networks. The domain of network politics includes, but is not limited to, e-politics (social networking for driving revolutions and organizing protests, online petitions, political blogs and vlogs, whistleblower Web sites, online campaigning, e-participation, virtual town halls, evoting, Internet freedom, access to information, net neutrality, etc.) and applications of other networks in politics (robocalling, text messaging, TV broadcasting, etc.). The definition of this field should significantly increase the pace of research and development in this important field.

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Citation

Ashu M.G. Solo & Jonathan Bishop (2014). Conceptualising Network Politics following the Arab Spring: An African Perspective. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 1(1), 23-28.

Sex and age biases in Tweets relating to the 2015 migration crisis

Sex and age biases in Tweets relating to the 2015 migration crisis

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The 2015 migration crisis arose out of the interference of Western government in the affairs of countries affected by the Arab Spring Uprisings. Attitudes towards immigration can be very strong, with even UK Prime Minister David Cameron describing the increased asylum applications as a result of his failed foreign policies a “swarm.” This talk looks at how attitudes towards immigration have been expressed on Twitter and the extent to which sex and age biases shape or otherwise the moral compass of those in the Twittersphere.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2015). Sex and age biases in Tweets relating to the 2015 migration crisis. Diaspora Beyond Nationalism Conference. 16 September 2015. Cardiff University, Cardiff, GB.

The Need for a Dualist Application of Public and Private Law in Great Britain Following the Use of “Flame Trolling” During the 2011 UK Riots: A Review and Model

The Need for a Dualist Application of Public and Private  Law in Great Britain Following  the Use of “Flame Trolling”  During the 2011 UK Riots: A Review and Model

Mugabi Ivan and Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Since time immemorial, the legal systems of Great Britain have often been spoken of highly as pinnacles of democracy. However, the split between criminal law and tort law have often caused problems where the police has often focused on the prosecution of people in poverty and where only the wealthy can afford to use the system. This chapter discusses the extent and limitations of existing measures to tackle computer-related crime, particularly with regards to the abusive kind of Internet Trolling, namely “flame trolling.” The chapter recommends further research to establish whether it should be the case that in a society based on dualism that criminal and civil cases should be held at the same time, and that in both instances those being accused of an offence or tort should be allowed to bring a counter-claim. It is discussed that in such a system the cases that would be brought are where there is a clear victim who had no part in the offence against them, such as murder, rape, theft and burglary, which are usually carefully planned and orchestrated acts.

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Reference

Ivan Mugabi and Jonathan Bishop (2015). The Need for a Dualist  Application of Public and Private  Law in Great Britain Following  the Use of “Flame Trolling”  During the 2011 UK Riots: A Review and Model. In: Maurice Dawson & Marwan Omar (Eds.).  New Threats and  Countermeasures in  Digital Crime and Cyber  Terrorism. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-need-for-a-dualism-application-of-public-and-private-law-in-great-britain-following-the-use-of-flame-trolling-during-the-2011-uk-riots.pdf

Review: Do It Like a Woman by Caroline Criado-Perez

Review: Do It Like a Woman by Caroline Criado-Perez

Jeremy McDonagh

Abstract

Do It Like A Woman (and change the world) is part of a contemporary wave of populist feminist writing which also includes How To Be a Woman (Caitlin Moran, 2012), Bad Feminist (Roxane Gay, 2014), Men Explain Things to Me (Rebecca Solnit, 2014), Not That Kind of Girl (Lena Dunham, 2014), and We Should All Be Feminists (Chimamanda Ngozi, 2014). Where Criado-Perez differs from her peers is in choosing not to write from a first-person perspective, despite the personal experiences that inspired the book, and instead bringing together a collection of stories from over 25 different sources to carry her theme.

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Jeremy McDonagh (2015). Review: Do It Like a Woman by Caroline Criado-Perez. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 2(1), pp.39-46. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/do-it-like-a-woman-by-caroline-criado-perez.pdf

Editorial for the Special Issue on Sex and Equality

Editorial for the Special Issue on Sex and Equality

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This special issue on Sex and Equality brings together a number of papers looking at how sex and gender interact with equality in the digital age.

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Jonathan Bishop (2015). Editorial for the Special Issue on Sex and Equality. International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 2(1), 1-4. Available at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/editorial-for-the-special-issue-on-sex-and-equality.pdf

What’s in a Game: The Politics of Shaping Property Tax Administration in Bangalore City India

What’s in a Game: The Politics of Shaping Property Tax Administration in Bangalore City India

Shefali Virkar

Abstract

Much has been written about e-government within a growing stream of literature on ICT for development, generating countervailing perspectives where optimistic, technocratic approaches are countered by far more sceptical standpoints on technological innovation. This body of work is, however, not without its limitations: a large proportion is anecdotal in its style and overly deterministic in its logic, with far less being empirical, and there is a tendency for models offered up by scholarly research to neglect the actual attitudes, choices, and behaviour of the wide array of actors involved in the implementation and use of new technology in real organisations. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives of the Ecology of Games framework and the Design-Actuality Gap model, this chapter focuses on the conception and implementation of an electronic property tax collection system in Bangalore (India) between 1998 and 2008. The work contributes to not just an understanding of the role of ICTs in public administrative reform, but also towards an emerging body of research that is critical of managerial rationalism for an organization as a whole, and which is sensitive to an ecology of actors, choices, and motivations within the organisation.

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Citation

Shefali Virkar (2014). What’s in a Game? The Politics of Shaping Property Tax Administration in Bangalore, India’ in Jonathan Bishop (ed.) Gamification for Human Factors Integration: Social, Educational, and Psychological Issues (pp. 31-51), IGI Global, Hershey, PA.

Trolls Just Want To Have Fun: Electronic Aggression within the Context of e-Participation and Other Online Political Behaviour in the United Kingdom

Trolls Just Want To Have Fun: Electronic Aggression within the Context of e-Participation and Other Online Political Behaviour in the United Kingdom

Shefali Virkar

Abstract

Over the last two decades, public confidence and trust in Government has declined visibly in several Western liberal democracies owing to a distinct lack of opportunities for citizen participation in political processes; and has instead given way instead to disillusionment with current political institutions, actors, and practices. The rise of the Internet as a global communications medium and the advent of digital platforms has opened up huge opportunities and raised new challenges for public institutions and agencies, with digital technology creating new forms of community; empowering citizens and reforming existing power structures in a way that has rendered obsolete or inappropriate many of the tools and processes of traditional democratic politics. Through an analysis of the No. 10 Downing Street ePetitions Initiative based in the United Kingdom, this article seeks to engage with issues related to the innovative use of network technology by Government to involve citizens in policy processes within existing democratic frameworks in order to improve administration, to reform democratic processes, and to renew citizen trust in institutions of governance. In particular, the work seeks to examine whether the application of the new Information and Communication Technologies to participatory democracy in the Government 2.0 era would eventually lead to radical transformations in government functioning, policymaking, and the body politic, or merely to modest, unspectacular political reform and to the emergence of technology-based, obsessive-compulsive pathologies and Internet-based trolling behaviours amongst individuals in society.

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Reference

Shefali Virkar (2014). Trolls Just Want to Have Fun: Electronic Aggression Within the Context of e-Participation and Other Online Political Behaviour in the United Kingdom’, International Journal of E-Politics (Special Issue), Volume 5, Issue 4, pp. 20-50.